January 3, 1863 in Salem, Virginia – On January 3, a group of Federals from the 1st Maine Cavalry and the 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry spotted a group of Confederate raiders in Salem. They attacked the raiders and sent them scattering into the nearby woods.
January 4, 1864 in Warrenton, Virginia – On January 4, Col. John S. Mosby sent a 25-man party of Confederate raiders, commanded by Lt. William T. Turner, to Warrenton. It was a cold day with snow covering the area. These conditions helped the Confederates to surprise the Union camp. The Confederates managed to attack the camp and capture 25 prisoners and 45 Union horses.
January 7, 1864 in Waccamaw Neck, South Carolina – On January 7, a lieutenant and a private of the 21st Georgia Cavalry captured 25 Union troops on Waccamaw Neck, located near Charleston.
January 7, 1864 in Sulpher Springs, Virginia – On January 7, at 4:00 A.M., a group of Confederate raiders attacked a Union picket post on the Sulphur Springs Road, manned by part of the 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. They made a cavalry charge into the rear of the Union position. Besides the 6 wounded & 18 captured Union casualties, the Confederates also managed to capture 43 Union horses. Luckily for the Confederates, the snowstorm muffled the sounds of the battle, keeping them from being pursued from a Union patrol.
January 10, 1864 in Loudoun Heights, Virginia – On January 10, Col. John S. Mosby and his Confederate raiders entered the Louden Heights area. There, a Confederate scout informed Mosby about a Union camp at the foot of the heights that contained about 300 Federals, commanded by Maj. Henry A. Cole. Mosby led his men around the Union pickets and when they arrived within a mile of them. The Confederates traveled through the woodline and halted again when they were within 200 yards from the rear of the Union camp. Mosby ordered a detachement of 10 men to go to Cole’s headquarters, which was located in a nearby house, and wait for the main attack to occur. At that point, the detachment would attack the house and hopefully capture Cole and his commanders.
Around 4:30 A.M., gunfire erupted in the direction of Cole’s headquarters. Mosby saw some horsemen ride to the rear of the camp, yelling and shooting. These were the Confederate detachment but Mosby thought they were Union cavalry that had discovered the attack formation. He then ordered the Confederates to begin their charge. They rode into the camp and opened fire on the detachment, still not knowing that they were their fellow Confederates. This continued for a few minutes and then they realized their mistake. This confusion gave the startled Federals time to rally their camp. It was still dark and none could really distinguish who was friend or foe.
The initial Union volley caught the Confederates in the open ground along the road. After a fierce firefight, Mosby ordered his troops to withdraw from the camp. Along with 6 prisoners, the Confederates managed to capture 60 horses while losing 6 men killed. They withdrew along the Hillsborough Road.
January 10, 1864 in Lockwood’s Folly Inlet, South Carolina – On January 10, the Union blockader USS Iron Age was lost off Lockwood’s Folly Inlet. It had run aground and was unable to free itself. Nearby Confederates noticed the ship and began to bombard it from land. The ship was eventually destroyed.
January 17, 1864 in Dandridge, Tennessee – Union forces under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke advanced on Dandridge, Tennessee, near the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad, on January 14, forcing Lt. Gen. James Longstreet’s Confederate troops to fall back. Longstreet, however, moved additional troops into the area on the 15th to meet the enemy and threaten the Union base at New Market. On the 16th, Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, commanding the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio, rode forward to occupy Kimbrough’s Crossroads. Within three or four miles of his objective, Sturgis’s cavalry met Confederate troops, forcing them back towards the crossroads. As the Union cavalry neared the crossroads, they discovered a Confederate infantry division with artillery that had arrived the day before.
The Union cavalry could not dislodge these Confederates and was compelled to retire to Dandridge. About noon the next day, Sturgis received information that the Confederates were preparing for an attack so he formed his men into line of battle. About 4:00 P.M., the Confederates advanced and the fighting quickly became general. The battle continued until after dark with the Federals occupying about the same battle line as when the fighting started.
The Union forces fell back to New Market and Strawberry Plains during the night, but the Confederates were unable to pursue because of the lack of cannons, ammunition, and shoes. For the time being, the Union forces left the area. The Confederates had failed to destroy or capture the Federals as they should have. During the battle the South, had 63 soldiers killed and 87 wounded or missing. The Union lost 16 killed in action and 134 wounded or missing.
January 26, 1864 in Athens, Alabama – Each side had cavalry forces engaged, under a regiment in strength. Confederate cavalry, numbering about 600 men, attacked Athens, held by about 100 Union troops, around 4:00 A.M. on the morning of January 26, 1864. After a 2-hour battle, the Confederates retreated.
Union forces, although greatly outnumbered and without fortifications, repulsed the attackers. This was typical of the actions in the strategic backwaters, local raids and counter-raids without much purpose except to inflict casualties or destroy supplies. The Union had about 20 killed and wounded. The Confederates had about 30 killed and wounded.
January 30, 1864 in Medley, West Virginia – On January 29, Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Rosser entered Moorefield with his Confederate force. He had learned of a large Union supply train that was heading to Petersburg.
On January 30, Rosser discovered that the train was at the town of Medley. The train was being guarded by several Union regiments. Rosser decided on a plan that would have one of his regiments around the rear of the Federals, the rest of his force would move to the flank, and he would have an artillery piece fire from the Union front. The plan worked out just the way he planned it.
Rosser stampeded the Union cavalry and then routed the remaining 350 Union soldiers with a dismounted attack. In the end, Rosser had captured 95 wagons from the supply train. The final casualties are unknown.
February 6-7, 1864 in Barnett’s Ford, Virginia – On February 6, in the morning, Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt’s 1st Cavalry Division drove out the Confederate pickets from the Robertson River all the way to the Rapidan River. At 4:00 P.M., Col. ?? Chapman, with parts of 2 brigades, was opposed by 3 Confederate cavalry regiments of Brig. Gen. Lunsford L. Lomax’s brigade.
On February 7, in the morning, Merritt’s attempted to cross the Rapidan River. He was blocked by a Confederate infantry brigade that had reinforced Lomax’s force. The battle between the two forces lasted until 12:00 P.M., when the fighting died down. Some Confedertae artillery was brought up to help support the Confederates. Merritt continued to fight until he was ordered to withdraw. The Union suffered about 20 killed & wounded.
February 6-7, 1864 in Orange and Culpeper Counties, Virginia – To distract attention from a planned cavalry-infantry raid up the Peninsula on Richmond, the Union army forced several crossings of the Rapidan River on February 6.
A II Corps division, commanded by Brig. Gen. J.C. Caldwell, crossed at Morton’s Ford, the I Corps at Raccoon Ford. Union cavalry crossed at Robertson’s Ford. Ewell’s Corps resisted the crossings. Fighting was sporadic but most severe at Morton’s Ford. By the 7th, the attacks had stalled, and the Federals withdrew during the night. The Union suffered 10 killed & 201 wounded. The Confederates suffered about 100 captured.
February 11, 1864 near Kearneysville, West Virginia – On February 11, a group of Confederate raiders, commanded by Maj. H.W. Gilmor, attacked the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad near Kearneysville. The attack threw a train off the tracks. The raiders then proceeded to rob the train’s crew and passengers.
February 20, 1864 near Upperville, Virginia – On February 20, Maj. Henry A. Cole and his Union force arrived at Blakely’s School Grove, located about 3 miles northeast of Upperville. He halted his men and set them up in a defensive position. They were being followed by Col. John S. Mosby and some Confederate raiders. The Confederates arrived at the grove and got into a line of battle across the fields. The opposing forces exchanged gunfire. The Federals then went forward in a charge and the Confederates beat them back. Cole ordered two more charges and both times was beaten back.
Mosby decided to split his force, which he did, and outflanked the Union position that was behind a stone wall. Cole ordered a withdrawal and, by deploying squads behind a secession of walls, managed to stop Mosby’s pursuit. The Confederates reported 3 wounded and 11 missing/ captured.
February 22-27, 1864 in Dalton, Georgia – From Vicksburg, Mississippi, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman launched a campaign to take the important railroad center at Meridian and, if the situation was favorable, to push on to Selma and threaten Mobile, in order to prevent the shipment of Confederate men and supplies. To counter the threat, Pres. Jefferson Davis ordered troops into the area.
While these operations unfolded, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas determined to probe Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army in the hope that his loss of 2 divisions, sent to reinforce Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk as he withdrew from Meridian to Demopolis, Alabama, would make him vulnerable. Skirmishing and intense fighting occurred throughout the demonstration.
At Crow Valley on the 25th, Union troops almost turned the Rebel right flank, but ultimately it held. On the 27th, Thomas’s army withdrew, realizing that Johnston was ready and able to counter any assault.
February 26, 1864 in Albemarle County, Virginia – In the early afternoon of February 26, Brig. Gen. George A. Custer and about 1,000-3,000 Union soldiers advanced towards the town of Charlottesville. This raid was an attempt by the Union to divert attention on to Charlottesville while an attempt was made to free prisoners of war held in Richmond.
Custer’s orders were to destroy a railroad bridge across the Rivanna River. Custer’s only opposition came from Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s Horse Company and infantrymen stationed in a camp near the Rivanna River at Carsbrook. His men raided the camp under fire from Confederate forces commanded by Capt. R. Preston Chew and Capt. M.N. Moorman. The Union forces looted the camp and set fire to it. They captured 2 Confederate soldiers. One of the Confederate artillery pieces exploded however, and Custer became confused believing that the explosion was actually the reopening of guns. His men fired into each other and then fled from the camp. The Confederate troops regrouped and chased Custer out of Albemarle.
March 1, 1864 in Ely’s Ford, Virginia – On March 1, Lt. Henry A.D. Merritt and his Union force attacked a Confederate post at Ely’s Ford. They captured 2 sentries and learned from them that the outpost reserve was located in a nearby house. The Federals attacked the house and captured the remainder of the Confederates.
March 2, 1864 in Walkerton, Virginia – On February 28, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick left his encampment at Stevensburg with 4,000 picked men to raid Richmond. Col. Ulric Dahlgren, son of Rear Adm. John Dahlgren, commanded an advance force of 500 men. While the main body under Kilpatrick rode along the Virginia Central Railroad tearing up track, Dahlgren rode south to the James River, hoping to cross over, penetrate Richmond’s defenses from the rear, and release Union prisoners at Belle Isle.
Kilpatrick reached the outskirts of Richmond on March 1 and skirmished before the city’s defenses, waiting for Dahlgren to rejoin the main column. Dahlgren, however, was delayed, and Kilpatrick was forced to withdraw with Confederate cavalry in pursuit. Hampton attacked Kilpatrick near Old Church on the 2nd, but the Federals found refuge with elements of Butler’s command at New Kent Court House. In the meantime, Dahlgren’s men, unable to penetrate Richmond’s defenses, tried to escape pursuit by riding north of the city. Dahlgren’s command became separated, and on March 2 his detachment of about 100 men was ambushed by a detachment of the 9th Virginia Cavalry and Home Guards in King and Queen County near Walkerton.
Dahlgren was killed and most of his men captured. Papers found on Dahlgren’s body that ordered him to burn Richmond and assassinate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet caused a political furor. Southerners accused the North of initiating
“a war of extermination.”
Meade, Kilpatrick, and Lincoln all disavowed any knowledge of the Dahlgren Papers.
March 9, 1864 in Greenwich, Virginia – On March 9, Col. John S. Mosby and a group of 40 Confederate raiders attacked a Union force at Greenwich. The Federals were routed and along with 9 prisoners, the Confederates captured 10 Union horses.
March 10, 1864 in Kabletown, Virginia – On March 10 , Lt. Dolly Richards led between 50-60 Confederate raiders into the Shenandoah Valley. There, they attacked a Union picket post of the 1st New York Cavalry. A detachment of 25 men of the New York Cavalry, commanded by Maj. Jerry A. Sullivan, were ordered to pursue the Confederates.
Near Kabletown, the Confederates turned around and attacked the Federals. After Sullivan was killed, the Federal detachment retreated back to their lines.
March 21, 1864 in Bayou Rapides, Louisiana – On March 21, a Union force, led by Col. ?? Mower, followed the Confederate force to Bayou Rapides. During the rainy night, Mower led 2 cavalry brigades and artillery on a mission to envelop and assault the Confederates. They were startled and routed by the Federals. Around 250 Confederates were taken prisoner along with 4 field guns.
March 25, 1864 in Paducah, Kentucky – Shortly after noon on March 25th, Gen. Nathan B. Forrest and 2,800 of his cavalrymen, having ridden 100 miles in 50 hours, suddenly descended on the Ohio River town of Paducah, KY. They were on another of their slashing raids deep into Union territory with the multipurpose expedition (recruit, reoutfit, disperse Federals, etc.) and capturing and destroying Union supplies.
Forrest arrived in Paducah on March 25 and quickly occupied the town. The Union garrison of 665 men under the command of Col. Stephen G. Hicks retired to Fort Anderson, in the town’s west end. Hicks had support from 2 gunboats on the Ohio River. Forrest sent his usual demand for surrender to Hicks:
“If you surrender, you shall be treated as prisoners of war; but if I have to storm your works, you may expect no quarter”.
Hicks refused to surrender, while shelling the area with his artillery. Forrest was not disappointed that Hicks declined to surrender; he just wanted the large quantity of supplies at Paducah. He ordered some of his men to keep the Union troops penned down inside the fort while the rest collected or destroyed the Union stores. Most of Forrest’s command destroyed unwanted supplies, loaded what they wanted, and rounded up horses and mules.
A small segment of Forrest’s command assaulted Fort Anderson and was repulsed, suffering heavy casualties. Soon afterwards, Forrest’s men withdrew. The Federals suffered 14 killed and 26 wounded. The Confederates suffered 10 killed and 40 wounded.
While Forrest’s men cleaned out the supplies, the gunboats fired into Paducah, not hurting the Confederates but causing considerable damage to the town. Having completed their mission, the raiders rode out of town at midnight. Forrest reported:
“I drove the enemy to their gunboats and fort; and held the town for 10 hours, captured many stores and horses; burned 60 bales of cotton, one steamer, and a drydock, bringing out 50 prisoners.”
A few days later, the Confederates read a newspaper that boastfully reported that the Confederates had missed 140 excellent army horses that had been hidden in a foundry.
Forrest promptly sent a detachment back to Paducah. They again ran Hicks into the fort, then found the horses and took them with them back to Mississippi. Although this was a Confederate victory, other than the destruction of supplies and capture of animals, no lasting results occurred. It did, however, warn the Federals that Forrest, or someone like him, could strike anywhere at any time.
March 29, 1864 in Bolivar, Tennessee – After several weeks of raiding through Tennessee, Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest’s troops were in need of some supplies. Forrest knew that the best place to collect some was at Fort Pillow. As Forrest was planning his raid on the fort, the Union force in Memphis was told of Forrest’s presence nearby. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Grierson ordered Col. Fielding Hurst to take some cavalry to harass and stop Forrest and his men.
On March 29, Hurst found the Confederate camp and attacked. The Confederates fought off the Federals and Hurst was forced to retreat back to Memphis.
April 1, 1864 in Natchitoches, Louisiana – On April 1, the Union force entered the town of Natchitoches. Once there, a small skirmish erupted between the Federals and the Confederate force.
April 4, 1864 in Kings and Queens Courthouse, Virginia – On April 4, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick was commanding a Union force consisting of 2 cavalry brigades, 3 infantry regiments, and an artillery battery. They attacked a Confederate camp near King and Queen Court House. The Federals routed the 1,200-man Confederate force, destroyed the military stores, and took 35 prisoners.
April 7, 1864 in Pleasant Hill, Louisiana – On April 7, the Union force, commanded by Brig. Gen. Albert L. Lee, met and skirmished with the Confederate force, commanded by Brig. Gen . Tom Green. Green’s Texas cavalry attacked Lee’s cavalry several times. The Confederates kept up a steady rifle-fire between their two ranks. Lee was soon reinforced by some infantry and fought off the Confederates.
April 12-13, 1864 in Pleasant Hill Landing, Louisiana – After the battle of Pleasant Hill on April 9, Brig. Gen. Tom Green led a detachment of Confederate cavalry to Pleasant Hill Landing on the Red River, where, about 4:00 P.M. on the 12th, they discovered grounded and damaged Union transports and gunboats, the XVI and XVII Corps river transportation, and Union gunboats, with supplies and armament aboard. Brig. Gen. Thomas Kilby Smith’s Provisional Division, XVII Corps, troops, and the gunboats furnished protection for the army transports. Smith moved guns from 3 of the transports to shore, where they opened fire on the Confederates.
Emblodened by liquor, Brig. Gen. Tom Green led a cavalry charge against the gunboats. When Green attacked, Smith’s men used great ingenuity in defending the boats and dispersing the enemy. Hiding behind bales of cotton, sacks of oats, and other ersatz obstructions, the men on the vessels, along with the Navy gunboats, repelled the attack, killed Green, and savaged the Confederate ranks. As many as 300 other Confederate cavalrymen fell, as the Union gunboats Neosho, Lexington, Hindman, and No. 13 poured Grape and canister into them. The Confederates withdrew and all but 5 of the Union transports continued downriver.
On the 13th, at Campti, other boats ran aground and came under enemy fire from Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell’s Sub-District of North Louisiana troops, which harassed the convoy throughout the 12th and 13th. The convoy rendezvoused with Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks’s army at Grand Ecore, providing the army with badly needed supplies. This was part of Red River Campaign
April 15, 1864 in Camden, Arkansas – On April 15, Brig. Gen. Frederick Steele was heading to Camden. He met up with a group of Confederate cavalry when he entered Camden. After a brief fight, the Confederates were driven out of town. Steele soon established a base at the town. He soon sent out a foraging party to gather some supplies for his starving troops.
April 21, 1864 in Natchitoches, Louisiana – On April 21, the Confederates saw the Union rear guard as the Federals were retreating from Grand Encore. They were on their way to Cloutierville. The Union force was being commanded by Brig. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks. The Confederates, commanded by Brig. Gen. Gabriel C. Wharton, attacked the rear guard. This forced the Federals to abandon their positions in Natchitoches.
May 4, 1864 in Sand Mountain, Alabama – Union Col. Abel D. Streight led a provisional brigade on a raid to cut the Western & Atlantic Railroad that supplied Gen. Braxton Bragg’s Confederate army in Middle Tennessee. From Nashville, Tennessee, Streight’s command traveled to Eastport, Mississippi, and then proceeded east to Tuscumbia, Alabama, in conjunction with another Union force commanded by Brig. Gen. Grenville Dodge.
On April 26, Streight’s men left Tuscumbia and marched southeast, their initial movements screened by Dodge’s troops. On the 30th, Brig. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest’s brigade caught up with Streight’s expedition and attacked its rearguard at Day’s Gap on Sand Mountain.
The Federals repulsed this attack and continued their march to avoid further delay and envelopment. The Federals suffered 23 killled & wounded while the Confederates suffered 65 killed and wounded.
May 5, 1864 in Dunn’s Bayou, Louisiana – On May 5, a duel occurred between the Confederate shore batteries and 2 wooden Union gunboats and a transport. All three ships were lost in the fight.
May 9, 1864 in Beaver Dam Station, Virginia – On May 9, a Union cavalry brigade, under Brig. Gen. George A. Custer, entered Beaver Dam Station. Without any Confederate resistance, Custer and his men proceeded to destroy 2 locomotives, over 100 railroad cars, 10 miles of tracks, and several reserve medical stores. They found some warehouses containing Confederate foodstuffs and destroyed 504,000 bread rations and 915,000 meat rations.
Custer also freed some 378 Union prisoners, captured at the Battle of the Wilderness. The loss of the railroad transportation was the most serious damage to the Confederate Army.
May 10, 1864 in Chesterfield County, Virginia – On May 10, elements of Maj. Gen. Robert Ransom’s division conducted a reconnaissance-in-force against a portion of Maj. Gen. Butler’s army that was destroying the railroad at Chester Station.
The Confederates attacked near the Winfree House, and the Federals retired to their Bermuda Hundred lines. This was part of Bermuda Hundred Campaign
May 10, 1864 on Cove Mountain in Wythe County, Virginia – On May 10, Brig. Gen. W.W. Averell’s raiders encountered a brigade under Brig. Gen. William “Grumble” Jones near Cove Mountain. After delaying the Union advance, the Confederates withdrew. The next day, Averell reached the New River Bridge on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, which he burned.
May 10, 1864 in Crockett’s Cove, Virginia – On May 10, Col. John H. Morgan was commanding a small Confederate cavalry force. Brig. Gen. William W. Averell and Brig. Gen. George Crook were leading a Union force in the same area. The two sides clashed in a brief battle. The Confederates managed to push the Federals back.
After the Union loss, Averell and Crook led their men back into West Virginia.
May 11, 1864 in Ashland, Virginia – On May 11, the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry attacked the railroad and depot at Ashland. They destroyed railroad tracks, and a train of cars. When they were finishing up this destruction, they were attacked by the 2ns Virginia Cavalry, commanded by Col. Thomas T. Mumford. At the end of the attack, both sides claimed victory.
May 11, 1864 in Ground Squirrel Bridge, Virginia – On May 11, at dawn, Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon and his Confederate force discovered a ford near Ground Squirrel Bridge. They caught the Union brigade by surprise. The Federals, commanded by Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg, lost their camp and was forced to retreat. They did not flee the area, though. A brisk fight ensued with the Federals soon receiving some artillery reinforcements. This ended the fight, with the Confederates withdrawing.
May 16, 1864 in Mansura, Louisiana – As Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s Red River Expeditionary Force retreated down Red River, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor attempted to slow the Union troops’ movements and, if possible, deplete their numbers or, better yet, destroy them. The Union forces passed Fort DeRussy, reached Marksville, and then continued east. At Mansura, Taylor massed his forces in an open prairie that controlled access to the three roads traversing the area, where he hoped his artillery could cause many casualties.
Early on the morning of May 16, the Union forces approached, and skirmishing quickly ensued. After a 4-hour fight (principally an artillery duel), a large Union force massed for a flank attack, inducing the Rebels to fall back. The Union troops marched to Simmsport. Taylor’s force could harass the enemy’s retrograde but was unable to halt it. This was part of Red River Campaign
May 16, 1864 in Chesterfield County, Virginia – On May 20, Confederate forces under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard attacked Butler’s Bermuda Hundred line near Ware Bottom Church. About 10,000 troops were involved in this action. After driving back Butler’s advanced pickets, the Confederates constructed the Howlett Line, effectively bottling up the Federals at Bermuda Hundred. Confederate victories at Proctor’s Creek and Ware Bottom Church enabled Beauregard to detach strong reinforcements for Lee’s army in time for the fighting at Cold Harbor. There were about 1,500 casualties on both sides. part of the Bermuda Hundred Campaign.
Conclusion: Confederate Victory
May 22, 1864 in Guard Hill, Virginia – On May 21, Col. John S. Mosby and his Confederate raiders headed to Guard Hill. Guard Hill was a wooded knoll that was located 4 miles from Front Royal on the road to Winchester. During the night, the Union garrison held a party that ended with a fight between the Federals themselves. During this confusion, Mosby sent a few of his men and they captured the Union pickets. They learned from the prisoners that the garrison consisted of 200 soldiers of the 15th New York Cavalry.
On May 22, at daybreak, around 6 Confederates opened fire on the garrison while the rest of the Confederate force charged into the Union camp. The Federals paniced and fled into the nearby woods. Along with 16 prisoners, the Confederates captured 75 horses.
May 26, 1864 in City, South Carolina – On May 26, the Union transport USS Boston was traveling on the Ashepoo River when it suddenly came under fire from some Confederate batteries on shore. The Confederate fire forced the Boston to become grounded at Chapman’s Fort. After several attempts to free the ship, its crew decided to destroy the ship before leaving.
May 29, 1864 in Salem, Arkansas – On May 29, a Union wagon train was traveling through the town of Salem when it was spotted by local Confederate forces in the area. The train was lightly guarded and the Confederates attacked it. In a short time, the wagon train was in possession of the Confederates.
June 3, 1864 in Ossabaw Sound, Georgia – The USS Water Witch was a 378 ton side-wheel steamer that the Union had used at the beginning of the war to help blockade the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 1864, the Water Witch, with a crew of 68 officers and men commanded by Lt. Austin Pendergrast, was serving off the coast of Georgia and assisting with the blockade of Savannah.
On May 31st, 7 small boats manned by 130 armed Confederate seamen were towed down the Savannah River by the small steamer CSS Firefly to the Isle of Hope. The seamen, commanded by Lt. Thomas P. Pelot, were beginning a daring commando-style raid to capture Water Witch, which was frequently stationed in Ossabaw Sound. Because the Union ship was not there on the night of the 31st, the Confederates camped on shore. The next night, with the Water Witch reported to be anchored in the sound, the Confederates rowed out in their 7 boats, but they could not find the ship in the darkness and so returned to shore just before daylight.
On the night of June 2, the Confederate raiders ventured out into the sound once more. This time they spotted the Water Witch, which was lit up by flashes of lightning, and rowed silently toward her. At 2:00 A.M., 5 of the small boats touched the Union ship at different spots at about the same time, and the Confederates quickly scrambled up the sides. Pelot, reported to be the first aboard the Union ship, was immediately shot through the heart.
Within 15 minutes, the Confederates had subdued the Union crew and captured the ship. Five other raiders were killed during the short, vicious fight, including the pilot who had been brought along to navigate the ship back to the Georgia mainland.
Because of the loss of the pilot, the captured ship was grounded in the shallow sound 3 times, and many of the provisions that were captured with the ship had to be jettisoned to lighten the vessel the last time it went aground. It took all day of June 3rd for the Confederates to bring the Water Witch to the nearby coast.
June 4, 1864 near Waverly, Kansas – On June 4, the USS Prairie Rose, commanded by Capt. William Eads, was near Waverly when it came under fire from Confederate guerrillas on the riverbank. Eads turned his ship around and fled downriver. The pilothouse was riddled with bullets and no-one was hurt.
June 6, 1864 in Chicot County, Arkansas – Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith ordered Brig. Gen. Joseph A. Mower to demonstrate against Lake Village. Mower camped near Sunnyside Landing on the evening of June 5 and took up his line of march again the next morning. The skirmishing Confederates fell back to Red Leaf where Col. Colton Greene and his men were encamped. As the Federals advanced, Greene’s men, assisted by artillery, fought a delaying action at Ditch Bayou and then withdrew to Parker’s landing on Bayou Mason.
The Union troops advanced to Lake Village, camped there overnight, and the next day rejoined the flotilla on the Mississippi River at Columbia. The Confederates delayed the Union advance but, eventually, allowed them to continue to their objective: Lake Village. The Federals suffered 40 killed & 70 wounded while the confederates suffered 100 killed and wounded
June 6, 1864 in Stauton, Virginia – On June 6, Brig. Gen. ?? Hunter led his Union force into Stauton. They proceeded to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad tracks and property, war material, factories, bridges, and telegraph lines. The railroad was totally destroyed for 3 miles out of Stauton and partially destroyed for an additional 3 miles. They released all of the prisoners from the jail and then destroyed the jail.
June 8-9, 1864 in Mount Sterling, Virginia – On June 8, Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan and his Confederate raiders captured the town of Mount Sterling. They skirmished the the Union garrison and drove them out. Next, Morgan went into the local bank and stole $18,000. They soon afterwards left town.
June 10, 1864 in Lexington, Kentucky – On June 10, Brig. Gen. David Hunter and his Union force were headed to the town of Lexington. The briefly skirmished with some local forces and entered Lexington. Once inside, they proceeded to burn all of the Virginia Military Institute buildings.
June 11, 1864 in Lexington, Kentucky – On June 11, Col. John H. Morgan and his Confederate raiders entered the town of Lexington. After driving off a small number of Federals, they proceeded to torch the Federal horse stables and let about 7,000 Union horses loose.
June 15, 1864 on the Arkansas River, Arkansas – On June 15, Col. Stand Watie and his Confederate Indian force captured the USS J.R. Williams on the Arkansas River. The Williams contained $100,000 worth of supplies.
Watie was awarded a promotion to brigadier general for this victory and given a command of his own brigade.
June 21, 1864 in New Castle Road, Virginia – On June 21, Brig. Gen. John McClausland attacked the Union trains and artillery at New Castle Road. The Union trains belonged to Brig. Gen. David Hunter. The Confederates took 3 guns and spiked 5 guns. They then left the area.
June 24, 1864 at Saint Mary’s Church, Virginia – On June 24, Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton’s cavalry attempted to cut off Sheridan’s cavalry returning from their raid to Trevillian Station.
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan fought a delaying action to protect a long supply train under his protection, then rejoined the Union army at Bermuda Hundred. This was part of Grant’s Overland Campaign
June 24, 1864 in White River, Arkansas – On June 24, Col. Jo Shelby led his Confederate cavalrymen to the White River. Once there, he spotted 3 Union steamers traveling towards his position. Once the ships were within range, he ordered his men to open fire. They attacked all 3 ships. Two of the ships managed to escape, but the USS Queen City was captured, looted, and then destroyed before the Confederates left the area.
July 6, 1864 in Hagerstown, Maryland – On July 6, Brig. Gen. John McClausland and his Confederate cavalry entered Hagerstown. McClausland levied the town for $20,000 in retaliation for the Maj. Gen. David Hunter’s raid and destruction in the Shenandoah Valley. After getting their money, the Confederates left town.
July 6, 1864 in Jackson County, Missouri – On July 6, Capt. George Todd and his Confederate guerrillas ambushed a Union patrol of the 2nd Colorado Cavalry. The Federals were quickly scattered and 8 union soldiers were killed.
July 8, 1864 in Frederick, Maryland – On July 8, Brig. Gen. John McClausland and his Confederate cavalry entered Frederick. McClausland levied the town for $200,000 in retaliation for the Maj. Gen. David Hunter’s raid and destruction in the Shenandoah Valley. Just 2 days earlier, McClausland did the same thing at Hagerstown. Once again, after the Confederates got their money, they quickly left town.
July 17, 1864 in Opelika, Alabama – On July 17, Brig. Gen. Lovell H. Rosseau and his Union force attacked the town of Opelika. The local Confederate force was under the command of Maj. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow. The Federals took or burned large quantities of supplies. They then took off down the West Point Railroad. While doing this, they destroyed 30 miles of track and burned several railroad stations and warehouses.
July 20, 1864 on Ruthersford Farm in Frederick & Winchester County, Virginia – On July 20, Brig. Gen. W.W. Averell’s Union division attacked Maj. Gen. S.D. Ramseur’s Confederate division at Rutherford’s and Carter’s farms. This sudden assault came in on the flank of Hoke’s brigade as it was deploying, throwing it into a panic. Ramseur retreated toward Winchester in confusion.
Averell captured 4 pieces of artillery and nearly 300 men. With this defeat, Early withdrew his army south to a defensive position at Fisher’s Hill. This was part of Early’s Maryland Campaign
July 20, 1864 in Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia – The Confederate force, commanded by Maj. Gen. Jubal Early, was heading back to the Shenandoah Valley after threatening Washington, D.C. The Union force, commanded by Brig. Gen. William W. Averell, had been trailing the Confederates.
On July 20, the two armies came together at Stephenson’s Depot. The depot was a little red-brick building just north of Winchester. A sharp skirmish soon ensued. The Confederates were soon routed, losing 73 killed, 130 wounded and 250 captured. The remainder of Early’s force quickly retreated towards Strasburg. This was part of Early’s Maryland Campaign
July 30-31, 1864 in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania – Nearly 2,600 Confederate cavalrymen halted on the outskirts of Chambersburg about 3:00 A.M. on July 30th. Their commander, Brig. Gen. John McClausland, carried written orders from Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early demanding from the citizens of this southern Pennsylvania town $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in greenbacks as compensation for 3 Virginia houses burned by Maj. Gen. David hunter’s Union troops. According to the orders, if the payment was not made, the town would be
“laid in ashes in retaliation”.
Three cannon shots signaled the Confederates presence and by 6:00 A.M., some 500 Confederates occupied the town, 100 Union troops had already fled. McClausland had the proclamation read and gave the citizens 6 hours to pay the ransom. While the commander waited, his men plundered the stores, including some liquor businesses. Soon, drunken Confederates began looting private homes, taking jewlery, silverware, and money. The citizens refused to pay the ransom and McClausland ordered the town fired.
The Confederates torched a warehouse first, then the courthouse and town hall, and within 10 minutes the flames engulfed the main part of the town. The terrified residents, seizing a few possessions, fled to a cemetery and fields around the village. Some citizens who had paid money to have their homes spared saw them burned anyway. A cavalry officer isolated from his men was shot and killed by a mob of townspeople. Those Confederates who disapproved of the burning did save several houses.
The Confederates departed by 1:00 P.M. Behind them 400 buildings, 274 of them homes, smoldered in ruins. Damages amounted to nearly $1,500,000. To Maj. Gen. Jubal Early, it was just retaliation.
July 30, 1864 in Macon, Georgia – On July 30, Brig. Gen. George Stoneman and his Union force encountered light Confederate resistance about 7 miles from Macon. The town people were in a panic, trying to leave the city before the Union force arrived. The leaders were sending private and public property on trains out of the city. Much of this property was taken and destroyed by the Federals. The Confederates were forced to destroy the bridges over the Ocmulgee River to stall the Union force.
Not being able to enter Macon, Stoneman was forced to retrace his steps away from the city. They headed back to Clinton.
July 30, 1864 in Clinton, Georgia – On July 30, Brig. Gen. George Stoneman and his Union force was forced to abandon their attack on Macon. They headed back to Clinton, where they encountered a Confederate force. The Federals drove the Confederates through the town, rescuing some of the Union foragers along the way. The foragers had been taken prisoner earlier that day and were placed in the town’s jail. The Federals then burned down the jail and continued their march out of town.
July 31, 1864 in Hillsboro, Georgia – On July 30, Brig. Gen. George Stoneman and his Union raiders were travelling towards Hillsboro. They were encountering Confederate resistance along the way.
On July 31, shortly after dawn, Stoneman met the main body of the Confederate force. Heavy skirmishing ensued with Stoneman dismounting most of his force. The Confederates got the upperhand and soon scattered the Federals. Stoneman stayed with his rear guard to allow the remainder of his force to escape. The rear guard was captured while the rest of the Federals were hit hard while trying to break free.
August 1, 1864 in Allegany County, Maryland – After burning Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on July 30, Johnson’s and McCausland’s cavalry brigades rode towards Cumberland, Maryland, to disrupt the B&O Railroad. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Kelly organized a small force of soldiers and citizens to meet the Confederate advance.
On August 1, Kelly ambushed Rebel cavalrymen near Cumberland at Folck’s Mill, and skirmishing continued for several hours. Eventually the Confederates withdrew. This was part of Early’s Maryland Campaign
August 9, 1864 in City Point, Virginia – On August 9, two Confederate agents, John Maxwell and R.K. Dillard, arrived at City Point. City Point was a small hamlet and river port at the confluence of the Appomattox River and James River. It was nicknamed the Cockade City, and located about 10 miles northeast of Petersburg.
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had transformed City Point into his base of operations for the Virginia area on June 15. By now, City Point became the central supply depot for all the Union armies operating against Petersburg and Richmond.
Dillard brought with him his homemade time bomb, dubbed a
“horological torpedo.” They were under orders “to operate…against the enemy’s vessels navigating…the James River.”
The bomb was inside of a box and contained around 15 lbs. of explosives. Both agents managed to slip undetected past the Union picket line and then paused at City Point’s outskirts, where Dillard had remained in hiding while Maxwell proceeded alone.
Maxwell saw a barge captain leave his ship on an errand. Maxwell moved toward the ship and was halted by a wharf sentinel. He was able to pass thruough by telling the sentinel that the captain had ordered him to bring the box on board. Maxwell gave the box to one of the ship’s crewman, who then unknowingly carried it onboard and stored it. The ship was the J.E. Kendrick, a barge loaded to capacity with artillery and small-arms munitions. Maxwell left the area and rejoined Dillard, retiring to a safe distance away to wait and watch the explosion. It was almost 10:00 A.M. at the time.
The explosion ripped apart the ship. Debris from the blast (all kinds of shell, munitions, pieces of wood, bayonets, parts of people, and so on) started falling all around the area. Grant was sitting in his cabin when he was struck by light debris but was uninjured. Within 5 minutes of the blast, he wired a brief description of the incident to the War Department in Washington, D.C. It would take several days to clean up the mess. It was later reported that $2 million worth of supplies and property was lost in the explosion. The final casualty figures of 46 killed and 126 wounded were considered too low by most people.
A court of inquiry ruled that the explosion was an accident. It wasn’t until years after the war that the true reason for the explosion was learned. The ordnance depot was rebuilt at the end of a large pier, a good distance from the main wharf.
August 20, 1864 at Lovejoy’s Station in Clayton County, Georgia – While Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was absent raiding Union supply lines from north Georgia to east Tennessee, Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, unconcerned, sent Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick to raid Confederate supply lines.
Leaving on August 18, Kilpatrick hit the Atlanta & West Point Railroad that evening, tearing up a small area of tracks. Next, Kilpatrick headed for Lovejoy’s Station on the Macon & Western Railroad. In transit, on the 19th, Kilpatrick’s men hit the Jonesborough supply depot on the Macon & Western Railroad, burning great amounts of supplies.
On the 20th, they reached Lovejoy’s Station and began their destruction. Confederate infantry (Cleburne’s Division) appeared and the raiders were forced to fight into the night, finally fleeing to prevent encirclement.
Although Kilpatrick had destroyed supplies and track at Lovejoy’s Station, the railroad line was back in operation in 2 days. This was part of Atlanta Campaign
August 21, 1864 at Summit Point in Jefferson County, West Virginia – Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan had pulled back up the Valley because of (erroneous) reports of substantial Confederate reinforcements. He also wanted to work out the kinks in his new command – troops brought together from all over who needed to grow accustomed to one another and a new HQ. But the Confederates read Sheridan’s withdrawal another way, as timidity.
Sheridan had almost twice their strength but wasn’t fighting, and Lt. Gen. Jubal Early decided to be more aggressive. As Sheridan concentrated his army near Charles Town, Early and Maj. Gen. Richard Anderson attacked the Union rearguards with converging columns on August 21. Early headed eastward, through Smithfield, against Wright’s Union VI Corps, while Anderson moved north against Wilson’s cavalry at Summit Point. There was cavalry fighting near Berryville.
There were engagements between the various forces all through the day, but the Union delaying actions did the job: their rearguards were never trapped and the Confederates got little advantage. The Federals fought effective delaying actions, withdrawing to near Halltown.
The next day, Sheridan’s men were around Halltown, where he was headed anyway. This was part of Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign
August 25-29, 1864 at Smithfield Crossing in Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia – On August 29, 2 Confederate infantry divisions crossed Opequon Creek at Smithfield and forced back Merritt’s Union cavalry division back along the road to Charles Town. Ricketts’s infantry division was brought up to stop the Confederate advance. The Federals suffered 20 killed, 61 wounded and 100 captured. The Confederates suffered 300 killed and wounded. This was part of Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign
September 2-6, 1864 in Lovejoy, Georgia – On September 2, the Confederate force, under Maj. Gen. William Hardee, had arrived at Lovejoy after retreating from Jonesboro. They immediately started to dig in and put up breastworks. They knew that Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s Union army would be right behind them.
Later that day, The Union IV and XXIII Corps arrived at Lovejoy and discovered Hardee’s force. At 12:00 P.M., the Federals started their attack. They had pushed the Confederate outposts back to the main defensive line. The Federals had gained a foothold in part of the breastworks that were not completed and attempted to force their way in. The Confederates finally pushed them back and forced the Federals to withdraw.
From September 2-5, sporadic skirmishing occurred between the two forces, with Hardee holding his ground. The Federals were finally forced to withdraw back to Atlanta to regroup.
September 4, 1864 in Greeneville, Tennessee – On September 4, Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, the famed Confederate raider, was inside the town of Greenville. Some Union troops entered the town and upon discovering Morgan’s presence there, they quickly found Morgan. Morgan dashed into a garden before the Federals opened fire, hitting Morgan in the chest and back. Morgan died instantly.
September 10-11, 1864 at Davis’ Cross Roads in Dade and Walker Counties, Georgia – After the Tullahoma Campaign, Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The III corps, comprising Rosecrans’s army, split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. Hearing of the Union advance, Braxton Bragg concentrated troops around Chattanooga. While Col. John T. Wilder’s artillery fired on Chattanooga, Rosecrans attempted to take advantage of Bragg’s situation and ordered other troops into Georgia. They raced forward, seized the important gaps, and moved out into McLemore’s Cove.
Negley’s XIV Army Corps division, supported by Brig. Gen. Absalom Baird’s division, was moving across the mouth of the cove on the Dug Gap road when Negley learned that Rebels were concentrating around Dug Gap. Moving through determined resistance, he closed on the gap, withdrawing to Davis’ Cross Roads in the evening of September 10 to await the supporting division. Bragg had ordered Gen. Hindman with his division to assault Negley at Davis’ Cross Roads in the flank, while Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne’s division forced its way through Dug Gap to strike Negley in front.
Hindman was to receive reinforcements for this movement, but most of them did not arrive. The Confederate officers, therefore, met and decided that they could not attack in their present condition. The next morning, however, fresh troops did arrive, and the Confederates began to move on the Union line. The supporting Union division had, by now, joined Negley, and, hearing of a Confederate attack, the Union forces determined that a strategic withdrawal, in the face of an enemy of supposedly superior numbers, to Stevens Gap was in order. Negley first moved his division to the ridge east of West Chickamauga Creek where it established a defensive line.
The other division then moved through them to Stevens Gap and established a defensive line there. Both divisions awaited the rest of Maj. Gen. George Thomas’s corps. All of this was accomplished under constant pursuit and fire from the Confederates.
September 11, 1864 in Sycamore Church, Virginia – On September 11, Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton and a Confederate raiding party attacked a smaller Union force at Sycamore Church. The Union force was composed of the 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry and the 1st District of Columbia Cavalry. The Confederates managed to push the Federals back to Coggin’s Point.
September 16, 1864 in Sycamore Church, Virginia – On September 16, a force of the 7th Virginia Cavalry arrived at Sycamore Church to raid the Union cattle area. The Confederates made a dismounted assault on the Union cavalry force. Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton arrived to lend assistance to the Virginia cavalry. The Federals decided to not let the Confederates take the cattle, so they broke down the corral fences and stampeded the cattle.
The Confederates managed to collect 2,486 of the cattle and took them back to the Petersburg lines. They also managed to capture 300 Union prisoners.
September 16, 1864 in Coggin’s Point, Virginia – On September 16, the Union force that had retreated from the Confederate attacks at the Battle of Sycamore Church were once again attacked by the Confederates. They had followed the Federals here and were trying to destroy them before they could link back up with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s force. The Confederates managed to push the Federals back even further.
September 18, 1864 in Martinsburg, Virginia – On September 18, Maj. Gen. Jubal Early moved part of his Confederate force north to the town of Martinsburg. There, they encountered and drove off a group of Union cavalry. Later that night, the Confederates had pulled back to Bunker Hill.
September 19, 1864 in Cabin Creek, Oklahoma – On September 19, Brig. Gen. Stand Watie led his 800-man Confederate force of Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminole Indians in a coup. The area was just north of Fort Gibson at Cabin Creek. Assisting Watie was Col. Richard M. Gano’s brigade of 1,200 Texans. Together, they captured a Northern train of 300 government and sutler wagons from Fort Scott. They were loaded with $1,500,000 worth of food, clothing, boots, shoes, medicine, guns, ammunition, and other supplies for the soldiers and Indian refugees at Fort Gibson.
At 3:00 A.M., the Confederates attacked the Union soldiers guarding the train. The fight scattered the Federals and the Confederates seized the wagons and 740 mules. After this, they took the newly acquired loot back to their camps.
The Battle of Cabin Creek was the biggest Confederate victory in the Indian Territory.
September 23-24, 1864 in Athens, Alabama – A Confederate raid had been ordered by President Jefferson Davis and Lt. Gen. John B. Hood. The purpose was to enter northern Alabama and middle Tennessee and disrupt the Union operations. Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest was to lead this raid. The purpose was to harass Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s supply line during his Atlanta Campaign.
On September 23, Forrest and his men entered Athens, surprising the local Union garrison. They managed to capture about 600 Federals.
September 23, 1864 in Front Royal, Virginia – The famous Confederate raider Lt. Col. John S. Mosby and his 43rd Virginia Cavalry Battalion were terrorizing the Federals all throughout Maj. Gen. Phil Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had ordered Sheridan to
“hang without trial”
any of Mosby’s men who might be captured.
On September 23, Mosby’s men were near Front Royal when they ran into a Union cavalry brigade. The two sides clashed with each other. The Federals managed to capture 6 Confederates and brought them to Front Royal. The Federals shot 2 men behind a Methodist church, 2 more were shot later, and the last 2 Confederates were strangled. They dead Confederates were left at Front Royal with a placard on one of the Confederates’ chest that said,
“Such is the fate of all Mosby’s men.”
Mosby would soon learn that his 6 men were murdered by Sheridan’s troops and immediately sought retribution. This was part of Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign
September 24, 1864 in Milford Haven, Virginia – On September 24, a Union naval force destroyed 4 small Confederate ships, captured 5 other ships, and leveled a fishery at Milford Haven. Milford Haven was located in the Rappahannock River area.
September 28, 1864 in Vernon, Florida – Believing that Confederate forces were en route and having achieved their objective of capturing Marianna and many of its defenders, the Federals withdrew from the town before sunrise on the morning of September 28. They rode south down the St. Andrews Bay Road and then veered west onto the Vernon road.
As the Union soldiers approached a creek crossing, they ran head on into Capt. W.B. Jones and his company of scouts from Vernon and Holmes Valley. Alerted by a courier that Marianna was facing attack, these men were marching to help their neighbors in Jackson County when they unexpectedly encountered the Union column.
Accounts of what happened next are extremely meager, but apparently Jones and his men engaged in a brief skirmish with the vanguard of Asboth’s column. At least one Confederate volunteer was killed and several others, including the captain, were captured. The rest of his men retreated as best they could. Pushing forward, the Federals reached Vernon by nightfall on September 28. Camping there, they moved out again for Choctawhatchee Bay before dawn the next morning.
As the Federals were pushing southwest from Marianna and engaging Jones’ men in Washington County, help was pouring into Marianna from all directions. Capts. Jeter and Milton had arrived with Companies E and G of the 5th Florida Cavalry on the night of September 27, as did Capt. George Robinson and his Home Guards from eastern Jackson County. They were joined the next morning by Luke Lott’s company from Calhoun County and later by Lt. Col. G.W. Scott of the 5th Florida Cavalry, who arrived ahead of his battalion with a company of Georgia cavalry and a home guard unit from Gadsden County. Organizing these forces as best he could, Scott established a strong line of patrols around Marianna on September 28 and, as soon as he could, set out in pursuit of the Union raiders.
Telegrams also went to Gen. Dabney H. Maury in Mobile, who sent the 15th Confederate Cavalry east in an effort to cut off Asboth’s Union column.The following pursuit failed. The Union column was too well-organized and had too much of a head start. By the time Scott’s Confederates could reach Vernon, Asboth was already at Point Washington on the Choctawhatchee Bay.
Brig. Gen. Alexander Asboth and the wounded were placed aboard the steamer USS Lizzie Davis, while the rest of the column crossed East Pass and marched down Santa Rosa Island to Fort Pickens. The raid was over.
October 3, 1864 in Harrisonburg, Virginia – On October 3, after learning that some of his men were executed by the Federals, Lt. Col. John S. Mosby sought some payback. Mosby found Lt. John R. Meigs returning to the Union camp at Harrisonburg. Meigs was a topographical engineer and the son of Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs.
Meigs and two of his orderlies saw Mosby and his men riding towards them. They thought that they were Union cavalry until the Confederates shot and killed Meigs. After M. Meigs found out about this, he established the soldier’s cemetery in Gen. Robert E. Lee’s former garden at his house in Arlington.
October 4, 1864 in Acworth, Georgia – On October 4 , a Confederate corps entered the towns of Acworth and Big Shanty. In both towns, they quickly captured the Union garrison and tore up a total of 15 miles of railroad tracks.
October 4, 1864 in Salem, Virginia – On October 4 , Col. John S. Mosby and his 250 Confederate raiders headed to Salem. At Salem, a Union force and work crew were there to repair damaged railroad tracks. Mosby organized his force and 2 cannon south and east of the village. The cannon unlimbered on Stephenson’s Hill, 1/2 mile from Salem. The skirmishers dismounted and fanned out while the main body remained mounted to charge through the streets. The Federals were working on the tracks and building a camp.
The cannon opened the battle with their fire but the rounds fell short of their target. With the cannon fire, the Federals tried to rally their force. By this time, the Confederate skirmishers were were among the Union tents and the mounted Confederates were attacking the work crews on the railroad. The Federals offered a token resistance as the majority of them and their work crews boarded the train or fled on foot toward Rectortown. The Confederates suffered 2 wounded but they captured 50 federals.
October 6, 1864 in in Darbytown, Virginia – On October 6, a Confederate cavalry force, commanded by Col. Thomas L. Rosser, attacked 2 Union regiments, commanded by Maj. Gen. George A. Custer, at Brock’s Gap. Brock’s gap was located near Fisher Hill in the Shenandoah valley. Custer’s force repulsed the Confederate attack.
October 7, 1864 in Brock’s Gap, Virginia – Responding to the loss of Fort Harrison and the increasing Union threat against Richmond, Gen. Robert E. Lee directed an offensive against the Union far right flank on October 7. The first blow routed the Union cavalry from their position covering Darbytown Road, Field’s and Hoke’s divisions assaulted the main Union defensive line along New Market Road. But the infantry were steadier,and were repulsed. Gen. John Gregg of the Texas brigade was killed. Lee’s calculated risk had failed. The Federals were not dislodged, and Lee withdrew into the Richmond defenses.
Conclusion: Union Victory
Casualties: Union: 56c ; Confederates: unknown
October 8, 1864 in Yew Hill, Virginia – On October 8 , a Union force consisting of 3 companies of the 8th Illinois Cavalry was moving from Rectortown to Piedmont. About a mile southeast of Piedmont, Col. John S. Mosby and 8 Confederate raiders attacked the Federals at “Yew Hill.” Yew Hill was the 116-year old home of a Shacklett family. Hand-to-hand fighting occurred between the opposing forces. After a brief skirmish, the Federals decided to retreat, which they did. After the fight, the raiders dispersed.
October 10, 1864 in Eastport, Mississippi – On October 10, a Union force was taken upstream on the Tennessee River to Eastport. They were planning to make an attack against the Confederate force there, commanded by Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest. Confederate gunfire damaged the gunboat USS Undine and disabled two transport ships. The transport ships pulled away, leaving most of the troops. The abandoned Union troops were able to make their escape back to friendly lines.
October 11, 1864 near Fort Donelson, Tennessee – On October 11, a force of Confederate cavalry attacked a Federal Negro recruiting detachment located near Fort Donelson. After a short skirmish, the Confederates were driven off.
October 11, 1864 in Newton, Virginia – On October 11 , Lt. Dolly Richards and a group of 35 Confederate raiders discovered a Union ambulance and a 50-man escort from the 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry near Newton. Newton was located just south of Winchester. The Confederates charged into the Federals. After a brief resistance, the Federals fled into the nearby woods. 12 Federals were captured.
October 11, 1864 near Clarendon, Arkansas – On October 11, a group of Confederate bushwhackers were on the White River, near Clarendon, when they spotted the Union steamer USS Resolute coming their way. They laid in hiding until the ship was near and then attacked it. They Resolute was soon forced away.
October 13, 1864 in Kearneysville, West Virginia – On October 13, Col. John S. Mosby led his Confederate Rangers into West Virginia. When they were near Kearneysville, west of Harper’s Ferry, they took up a section of railroad tracks. They then wrecked a passenger train, and seized $173,000, largely from two army paymasters.
After this, Mosby ordered his troops to set fire to the train, burning it up.
October 13, 1864 at Darbytown Road in Henrico County, Virginia – On October 13, Union forces advanced to find and feel the new Confederate defensive line in front of Richmond. While mostly a battle of skirmishers, a Union brigade assaulted fortifications north of Darbytown Road and was repulsed with heavy casualties. The Federals retired to their entrenched lines along New Market Road. This was part of Petersburg Campaign
October 14, 1864 in Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia – On October 13, Lt. Col. John S. Mosby and his Confederate raiders set out for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Harper’s Ferry. This was perhaps his most celebrated raid in the war, and was called by some the “Greenback Raid.” The purpose was to harass and achieve a measure of terrorism against a supposedly secure rail line.
On October 14, at 2:30 A.M., Mosby’s raiders managed to derail a passenger train 8 miles northwest of Harper’s Ferry. They discovered that the majority of the passengers were a contingent of German-speaking Americans. Mosby surprisingly discovered that there were 2 paymasters on board that were carring $173,000 in greenbacks. The Confederates took the money and left the area.
October 14, 1864 in Danville, Missouri – On October 14, part of Col. William Anderson’s 80 Confederate guerrillas attacked the town of Danville. They killed 5 militiamen, several citizens, and burned and robbed most of the stores and houses in the community. Afterwards, they headed east.
October 15, 1864 in Glasgow, Missouri – While Maj. Gen. Sterling Price led his men westward across Missouri, he decided to send a detachment to Glasgow to liberate weapons and supplies in an arms storehouse, purported to be there. This combined mounted infantry, cavalry, and artillery force laid siege to the town and the fortifications on Hereford Hill.
Before dawn on October 15, Confederate artillery opened on the town and Confederates advanced on Glasgow by various routes, forcing the Federals to fall back. The Union forces retreated out of town and up the hill toward the fortifications on Hereford Hill. There they formed a defensive line in this area, but the Confederates continued to advance. Convinced that he could not defend against another Confederate attack, Col. Chester Harding surrendered around 1:30 P.M.
Although Harding destroyed some Union stores, Price’s men found rifle-muskets, overcoats, and horses. The Confederates remained in town for 3 days before rejoining the main column with new supplies and weapons and marching on towards Kansas City. The victory and capture of supplies and weapons were a boost to Price’s army’s morale. The Federals suffered 400 Killed & wounded. The Confederates suffered about 50 killed & wounded. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 19, 1864 in Lexington, Missouri – Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s march along the Missouri River was slow, providing the Federals a chance to concentrate. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commanding the Department of the Missouri, proposed a pincer movement to trap Price and his army, but he was unable to communicate with Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, commander of the Department of Kansas, to formalize the plan. Curtis was having problems because many of his troops were Kansas militia and they refused to enter Missouri, but a force of 2,000 men under the command of Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt did set out for Lexington. On October 19, Price’s army approached Lexington, collided with Union scouts and pickets about 2:00 pm, drove them back, and engaged in a battle with the main force.
The Federals resisted at first, but Price’s army eventually pushed them through the town to the western outskirts and pursued them along the Independence Road until night fall. Without Curtis’s entire force, the Yankees could not stop Price’s army, but they did further retard their slow march. Blunt gained valuable information about the size and disposition of Price’s army. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 21, 1864 in Westport, Missouri – On the 20th, Blunt’s troops arrived on the Little Blue River, 8 miles east of Independence. The Union force prepared to engage the Confederates again in a strong defensive position on the west bank. Curtis, however, ordered Blunt into Independence while leaving a small force, under Col. Thomas Moonlight, on the Little Blue.
The next day, Curtis ordered Blunt to take all of the volunteers and return to the Little Blue. As he neared the stream, he discovered that Moonlight’s small force had burned the bridge as ordered, engaged the enemy, and retreated away from the strong defensive position occupied the day before, crossing the river. Blunt entered the fray and attempted to drive the enemy back beyond the defensive position that he wished to reoccupy.
The Federals forced the Confederates to fall back, at first, but their numerical superiority took its toll in the five-hour battle. The Federals retreated to Independence and went into camp there after dark. Once again, the Confederates had been slowed and more Union reinforcements were arriving. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 22, 1864 in Independence, Missouri – Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s army rode west in the direction of Kansas City. On the night of the 21st, he camped at Independence and resumed his westward march the next morning with Brig. Gen. Joe Shelby’s division in the lead followed by Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke’s division, with Brig. Gen. James Fagan’s division bringing up the rear. While Shelby’s men met success at Byram’s Ford, the other two columns did not fare as well. Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s Union force crossed the Little Blue, beat up a Confederate brigade in Fagan’s command, and occupied Independence. Marmaduke’s division then met Pleasonton about two miles west of Independence, hit the Federals hard, pressed them back, and held them at bay until the morning of the 23rd.
Pleasonton’s actions, however, frightened Price and his army, and influenced them, after they had crossed the Big Blue, to send their wagon trains to Little Santa Fe on the Fort Scott Road. The Confederates suffered about 140 killed & wounded. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 22-23, 1864 in Jackson County, Missouri – Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s Army of Missouri was headed west towards Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth. Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis’s Army of the Border, in and around Westport, was blocking the Confederates’ way west and Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s provisional cavalry division was pressing Price’s army’s rear. Price had nearly 500 wagons with him and required a good ford over the Big Blue River to facilitate the passage of his supplies. Byram’s Ford was the best ford in the area and became a strategic point during the fighting around Westport.
On October 22, Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt’s division held a defensive position on the Big Blue River’s west bank. Around 10:00 A.M. on the 22nd, part of Brig. Gen. Joseph O. Shelby’s Confederate division conducted a frontal attack on Blunt’s men. This attack was a ruse because the rest of Shelby’s men flanked Blunt’s hasty defenses, forcing the Federals to retire to Westport. Price’s wagon train and about 5,000 head of cattle then crossed the Big Blue River at Byram’s Ford and headed southward toward Little Santa Fe and safety. Pleasonton’s cavalry was hot on the tail of Price’s army. Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke’s Rebel division held the west bank of the Big Blue at Byram’s Ford to prevent Pleasonton from attacking Price’s rear.
On the 23rd, Pleasonton assaulted Marmaduke at Byram’s Ford, around 8:00 A.M. Three hours later, Marmaduke’s men had enough and fell back toward Westport. With Pleasonton across the river, he was now an additional threat to Price who was fighting Curtis’s Army of the Border at Westport. Price had to retreat south. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 25, 1864 in Linn County, Kansas – The engagement at Marais des Cygnes River was the last major fighting of Price’s raid into Missouri. For almost a full month, Pleasonton had been chasing Price’s raiders throughout Missouri. At Jefferson City, his defenses were extensive and threatening enough to send Price into a westward retreat. On hearing of Price’s movement, Pleasonton immediately ordered a cavalry division to follow in pursuit.
He struck on the 22nd near Westport, then withdrew. Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis’s Union Army of the Border struck Price again the next day just south of Westport, as Pleasonton attacked one of Price’s 3 divisions along the Big Blue River. Since the fighting had greatly reduced his forces, Price hastily retreated southward. Pleasonton immediately resumed his pursuit, chasing Price’s demoralized troops for 60 miles to the Marais des Cygnes on the Kansas border.
By the 25th, Pleasonton had reached the Confederate lines at the river and planned an attack for daybreak. Beginning with an artillery bombardment that began at 4:00 A.M., Pleasonton’s command, heavily outnumbered, made a gallant charge against the weakened Confederates and attacked furiously. Although outnumbered, they hit the Confederate line, forcing them to withdraw. According to Pleasonton, the Confederates left in great haste, dropping trees in the road to bar the Union progress, and fighting a running contest to the Osage River,…. after a brilliant charge, the Confederates were routed. Price’s troops were effectively crippled, and except for a few skirmishes, Price’s Missouri Raid was over. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 25, 1864 in Vernon County, Missouri – Following the Battle of Mine Creek, Maj. Gen. Sterling Price continued his cartage towards Fort Scott. In late afternoon of October 25, Price’s supply train had difficulty crossing the Marmiton River ford and, like at Mine Creek, Price had to make a stand.
Brig. Gen. John S. McNeil, commanding 2 brigades of Pleasonton’s cavalry division, attacked the Confederate troops that Price and his officers rallied, included a sizable number of unarmed men. McNeil observed the sizable Confederate force, not knowing that many of them were unarmed, and refrained from an all out assault. After about 2 hours of skirmishing, Price continued his retreat and McNeil could not mount an effective pursuit. Price’s army was broken by this time, and it was simply a question of how many men he could successfully evacuate to friendly territory. This was part of Price’s Missouri Campaign
October 27, 1864 in Plymouth, North Carolina – On the Roanoke River, Lt. William B. Cushing commanded an expedition to find and destroy the Confederate ironclad CSS Albemarle, commanded by Lt. Alexander P. Warley. Cushing did not want to destroy the ironclad if he had a chance to capture it. He outfitted two 32ft. steam picket boats with a 12lb. howitzer in the bow of each and a 14ft. spar torpedo.
On October 24, one of the 2 boats made it to the designated area while the second one got lost enroute.
On October 27, under the cover of darkness, Cushing and 7 volunteers moved out in their picket boat in a rainstorm. They sailed over 8 miles from Albemarle Sound to Plymouth. When they neared the Albemarle, a Confederate spotted them and opened fire. Cushing soon lowered the torpedoe and fired it into the Albemarle, striking it squarely in the hull. This immediately disabled the Albemarle as it began to sink. The Albemarle went down in a few moments. This action made Cushing an instant hero up North.
November 11, 1864 in Rome, Georgia – On November 11, a Union force arrived at Rome. Once there, they proceeded to destroy several bridges, foundries, mills, shops, warehouses, and other military and civilian property that could be used by the Confederate government. The Union soldiers then started off for Kingston and Atlanta.
November 16, 1864 in Lovejoy, Georgia – On November 16, as the majority of the Army of Tennessee was retreating to Macon, 2 Confederate brigades were left at Lovejoy Station as a rearguard. Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick was leading his Union cavalry force when he ran into the Confederates. A skirmish ensued when the cavalry dismounted and attacked the Confederate line. They managed to capture 2 cannon just as Col. Eli H. Murray’s cavalry brigade scattered the Confederate force. This was part of Sherman’s Savannah Campaign
November 16, 1864 in Bear Creek Station, Georgia – On November 16, the retreating Confederates headed to Bear Creek Station. The Union cavalry force followed them and made another quick attack. They managed to capture 2 cannon and 50 Confederate prisoners. This was part of Sherman’s Savannah Campaign
November 22, 1864 in Lawrenceburg, Tennessee – On November 21, Lt. Gen. John B. Hood and the Army of Tennessee began their Franklin & Nashville Campaign. They moved out from Florence, Alabama. On November 22, the Confederates arrived at Lawrenceburg. There, they discovered the advance guard of Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield’s Union force. The Confederates overwhelmed the Federals and forced them to retreat toward Columbia. This was part of Franklin & Nashville Campaign
November 24-25, 1864 in Ball’s Ferry, Georgia – On November 24, Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler and his Confederate cavalry force quickly moved to block the Union advance. They caught up with the Federals and attacked the Union rearguard at Ball’s Ferry. Nearby, the 1st Alabama Cavalry (Union) attacked some of Wheeler’s pickets. During the night, Union engineers constucted a pontoon-bridge 2 miles away. On November 25, early in the morning, around 200 Union soldiers crossed the bridge and suddenly threatened the Confederate line. The Confederates were ultimately forced to abandon their position. This was part of Sherman’s Savannah Campaign
November 25-26, 1864 in Sandersville, Georgia – On November 25, Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler and his Confederate cavalry attacked Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum’s advance guard. The Federals were driven back to the main Union force. On November 26, the fighting continued. Col. Ezra A. Carman’s Union brigade assaulted the Confederate line, commanded by Maj. Alfred L. Hartridge. The Federals collapsed the Confederate line and pushed them back. With the 2 days of fighting over, the Union force was able to finally occupy Sandersville. This was part of Sherman’s Savannah Campaign
November 26, 1864 in Augusta, Georgia – On November 26, during the night, Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry force overrode a Union cavalry campsite at Sylvan Grove. The Confederates rode among the sleeping Federals and took many of them as prisoners, the regimental colors, and about 50 of their horses. Maj. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick was at a nearby house and managed to escape.
November 26, 1864 in Sylvan Grove, Georgia – On November 26, Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry attacked the 8th Indiana Cavalry at Sylvan Springs. The Confederates managed to drive the Federals away from their camp.
November 28, 1864 in New Creek, West Virginia – On November 28, Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Rosser and his Confederate raiders headed to New Creek. New Creek was located about 22 miles southwest of Cumberland, Maryland. It was a key railroad station on the Baltimore & Orange Railroad and also an important supply depot for the Union Army. The area was guarded by two blockhouses and a 800-man garrison of Union soldiers. Rosser knew that a surprise attack was critical for a successful raid.
The Confederates met a Union patrol and captured most of the Union soldiers but a few escaped. Rosser pressed his force forward before word got back to New Creek about the Confederate presence. Rosser split his force in two. Maj. E.H. McDonald and the 11th Virginia Cavalry was to approach New Creek from the east and cut the railroad and telegraph about 1/2 mile from the station. This would keep word from getting out about an attack. Rosser would take the rest of the force and make the main attack. Using captured Union uniforms, an advance party of Confederates entered town in front of the rest of the Confederates. They got to within 1/2 mile of the forts before making a full charge. The fort’s garrison was surprised and captured while another detachment of Confederates surprised the Union artillery battery and captured that garrison. Along with the Union prisoners, Rosser managed to capture 400 horses and 4 pieces of srtillery.
November 28, 1864 in Piedmont, West Virginia – On November 28, Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Rosser sent the 11th Virginia Cavalry Regiment to Piedmont. After defeating the Union forces at New Creek, the cavalrymen left for Piedmont, about 5 miles west of New Creek. After a brisk fight with the small Union garrison, the Confederates were able to dislodge the defenders and burn down the machine shops of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. They then returned to the main Confederate force at New Creek.
November 28, 1864 near Cumberland, Virginia – On November 28, Brig. Gen. William H.F. Payne and his Confederate brigade was advancing along the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. They soon encountered some Union pickets and opened fire on them. The pickets were quickly driven away.
December 17, 1864 in Hollow’s Tree Gap, Georgia – On December 17 , the Confederate force made a stand at Hollow’s Tree Gap, located about 4 miles north of Franklin. They managed to hold off the Union advance until they found out that they were being outflanked on both sides. The Confederates had no choice but to retreat farther south.
Conclusion: Union Victory
December 20-21, 1864 in Saltville, Virginia – After defeating a Confederate force at Marion on the December 17-18, Stoneman’s expedition advanced to Saltville. After determined skirmishing on the part of the outnumbered Confederate defenders, the Federals captured and destroyed the saltworks, accomplishing the objective of their raid. Part of Stoneman’s Southwest Virginia Raid.
Conclusion: Union Victory