2nd USCT Infantry Regiment 1st USCT Infantry Regiment 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment 1861 Skirmishes 1862 Skirmishes 1863 Skirmishes 1864 Skirmishes 1865 Skirmishes Alternate Battle Names 3rd Regiment Alabama Infantry 1861-04-12 Battle of Fort Sumter 1861-04-15 Evacuation of Fort Sumter 1861-04-19 Riots in Baltimore 1861-05-07 Gloucester Point 1861-05-10 Camp Jackson 1861-05-10 Riots in St. Louis 1861-05-18 Sewell’s Point 1861-05-29 Aquia Creek 1861-06-01 Fairfax Court House I 1861-06-01 Arlington Mills 1861-06-03 Philippi 1861-06-05 Pig Point 1861-06-10 Big Bethel 1861-06-15 Hooe’s Ferry 1861-06-17 Vienna 1861-06-17 Boonville 1861-06-19 Cole Camp 1861-06-27 Mathias Point 1861-07-02 Hoke’s Run 1861-07-05 Carthage 1861-07-05 Neosho 1861-07-08 Laurel Hill 1861-07-11 Rich Mountain 1861-07-12 Barboursville 1861-07-13 Corrick’s Ford 1861-07-17 Scary Creek 1861-07-17 Bunker Hill 1861-07-18 Blackburn’s Ford 1861-07-21 Manassas I 1861-07-22 Forsyth 1861-07-25 Mesilla I 1861-07-27 Fort Fillmore 1861-07-28 Sinking of the Petrel 1861-08 Siege of Tubac 1861-08 Cooke’s Canyon 1861-08 Battle of the Florida Mountains 1861-08-02 Dug Springs 1861-08-03 Curran Post Office 1861-08-05 Athens 1861-08-07 Hampton 1861-08-10 Wilson’s Creek 1861-08-10 Potosi 1861-08-19 Charleston 1861-08-25 Mason’s Hill 1861-08-26 Kessler’s Cross Lanes 1861-08-28 Hatteras Inlet Batteries 1861-08-31 Munson’s Hill 1861-09-02 Dry Wood Creek 1861-09-02 Gallinas Massacre 1861-09-08 Placito 1861-09-10 Carnifex Ferry 1861-09-11 Lewinsville 1861-09-12 Cheat Mountain 1861-09-12 Lexington I 1861-09-17 Liberty 1861-09-19 Barbourville 1861-09-21 Fredericktown I 1861-09-24 Canada Alamosa 1861-09-27 Pinos Altos 1861-10-03 Greenbrier River 1861-10-05 Cockle Creek 1861-10-09 Santa Rosa Island 1861-10-12 Battle of the Head of Passes 1861-10-21 Ball’s Bluff 1861-10-21 Camp Wildcat 1861-10-21 Fredericktown II 1861-10-23 Big Sandy Expedition 1861-10-25 Springfield I 1861-11-03 Port Royal 1861-11-07 Belmont 1861-11-08 Ivy Mountain 1861-11-19 Round Mountain 1861-11-20 Skirmish at Brownsville 1861-11-20 Hunter’s Mills 1861-12-04 Bog Wallow Ambush 1861-12-09 Chusto-Talasah 1861-12-13 Camp Allegheny 1861-12-17 Rowlett’s Station 1861-12-19 Skirmish at Blackwater Creek 1861-12-20 Dranesville 1861-12-26 Chustenahlah 1861-12-28 Mount Zion Church 1861-12-28 Sacramento 1862-01-01 Crook’s 1862 Expedition 1862-01-03 Cockpit Point 1862-01-05 Hancock 1862-01-08 Roan’s Tan Yard 1862-01-10 Middle Creek 1862-01-11 Lucas Bend 1862-01-19 Mill Springs

Confederate Officers

 

Name Rank Notes
Adams, Daniel Weisiger Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 23, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Mississippi state senator, 1852–1856. *Brother of William Wirt Adams.
*1st Louisiana Infantry: Lt. Colonel, March 13, 1861, Colonel, October 30, 1861.
*Lost right eye at Shiloh. *Wounded: Perryville, Stones River.
*Wounded, captured at Chickamauga. *Exchanged 1864.[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Adams, John Brigadier General
rank: December 29, 1862
nom: January 9, 1863
re-nom: May 23, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 31, 1861.
*Appointed captain of cavalry in command at Memphis, August 27, 1861. Colonel, May 1862.
*Killed at Franklin, aged 39.
Adams, William Wirt Brigadier General
rank: September 25, 1863
nom: September 28, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Army of Republic of Texas. *Mississippi legislator, 1858, 1860. *Brother of Daniel Weisiger Adams.
*1st Mississippi Cavalry: Colonel, October 16, 1861.
Alexander, Edward Porter Brigadier General (Artillery)
rank: February 26, 1864
nom: March 1, 1864
conf: May 28, 1864
(Artillery)
conf: June 10, 1864.
*USMA, 1857. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 1, 1861.
*Captain, then Major, July 1, 1861, engineers.
*Chief of ordnance, Army of Northern Virginia; Chief of Artillery, Longstreet’s Corps.
*Wounded at Gettysburg, Petersburg.
Allen, Henry Watkins Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 19, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Texas War of Independence. *Louisiana legislator.
*4th Louisiana Infantry: Private, April 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 20, 1861, Colonel, March 21, 1862.
*Wounded at Shiloh; leg shattered at Baton Rouge, 1862.
*Resigned as brigadier general, January 10, 1864. *Governor of Louisiana, January 25, 1864–June 2, 1865.
Allen, William W. Brigadier General (special)
rank: February 26, 1864
nom: March 1, 1864
conf: June 9, 1864
*Montgomery Mounted Rifles, 1st Lieutenant, April 1861.
*1st Alabama Cavalry: Major, December 11, 1861, Colonel, July 11, 1862.
*Wounded at Perryville, Stones River and Waynesboro, Georgia.
*Appointed major general (temporary rank), March 4, 1865 but Senate did not act on nomination.
Anderson, George Burgwyn Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 9, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862.
*USMA, 1852 *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 25, 1861.
*4th North Carolina Infantry: Colonel, July 16, 1861.
*Wounded at Malvern Hill. *Mortally wounded at Antietam, September 17, 1862.
*Died October 16, 1862, Raleigh, North Carolina, aged 31.
Anderson, George T. “Tige” Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf. April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *Returned to U.S. Army May 3, 1855, Captain, 1st U.S. Cavalry
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 11, 1858.
*11th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, July 2, 1861. *Severely wounded at Gettysburg.
Anderson, James Patton Brigadier General
rank, nom: February 10, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General
nom: February 11, 1864
rank, conf: February 17, 1864
*Mississippi legislator. *Washington Territory marshal, delegate to U.S. Congress.
*Mexican–American War: Lt. Colonel, Mississippi militia.
*1st Florida Infantry: Colonel, April 1, 1861.
*Severely wounded at Jonesboro, Georgia.
Anderson, Joseph R. Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 3, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1836. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, July 1, 1837.
*Superintendent, Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia, 1841–1865.
*Virginia legislator. *6th Infantry Battalion, Local Defense troops, Major, May 1861.
*Major, Artillery, August 27, 1861. *North Carolina Local Defense troops until April 19, 1862.
*Wounded in forehead at Glendale.
*Resigned as brigadier general, July 19, 1862, to resume control of Tredegar Iron Works.
Anderson, Richard Heron
“Fighting Dick”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 18, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: July 14, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
Lieutenant General (temporary)
rank, nom: May 31, 1864
conf: June 1, 1864
*USMA, 1842. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 3, 1861.
*Wounded at Antietam.
*Promoted to lieutenant general with temporary rank
after Longstreet wounded at the Wilderness.
*Reverted to major general on Longstreet’s return to duty.
Anderson, Robert H. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: July 26, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*USMA, 1857. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 17, 1861.
*Special assistant to W.H.T. Walker, June 1861.
*5th Georgia Cavalry: Colonel, January 20, 1863.
*Wounded at Newnan, Georgia; Griswoldville, Georgia; Fayetteville, North Carolina.
Anderson, Samuel Read Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 9, 1861
conf: August 18, 1861
rank: November 7, 1864
nom: November 15, 1864
conf: November 19, 1864
*Mexican–American War.
*Tennessee Militia, Major General, May 9, 1861, aged 57.
*Resigned as brigadier general, Spring 1862, due to ill health.
*Brigadier General to rank from November 7, 1864 to head Tennessee conscription bureau.
Archer, James J. Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 3, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Returned to U.S. Army in 1855.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 14, 1861.
*5th Texas Infantry: Colonel, October 2, 1861. *Wounded, captured, July 1, 1863 at Gettysburg.
*Confined for over a year. *Exchanged August 3, 1864, health shattered.
*Brief return to duty, summer 1864. *Died of pneumonia, October 24, 1864, Richmond, Virginia, aged 46.
Armistead, Lewis Addison “Lo” Brigadier General
nom: March 29, 1862
rank, conf: April 1, 1862
*Dismissed from USMA but nonetheless appointed to U.S. Army in 1839.
*Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 6, 1861.
*57th Virginia Infantry: Colonel, September 25, 1861.
*Commanded a brigade in Pickett’s division. *Wounded at Antietam.
*Mortally wounded during Pickett’s Charge, Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.
*Died at a Union Army field hospital, July 5, 1863.
Armstrong, Frank Crawford Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*Fought with Union Army at First Bull Run.
*Resigned from Union Army on August 13, 1861 and joined Confederate Army.
Ashby, Turner See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Baker, Alpheus Brigadier General
rank: March 5, 1864
nom: March 7, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*7th Alabama Infantry: Private, 1861, Captain, 1861, Lt. Colonel, January 2, 1862.
*54th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, January 28, 1862.
*Captured at Island #10. *Exchanged September 1862.
*Severely wounded at Baker’s Creek. *Wounded at Ezra Church.
Baker, Laurence S. Brigadier General
rank: July 23, 1863
nom: July 30, 1863
conf: February 16, 1864
*USMA, 1851 *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 10, 1861.
*1st North Carolina Cavalry: Lt. Colonel, May 8, 1861, Colonel, March 1, 1862.
*Wounded at Gettysburg, Brandy Station and in North Carolina, 1864.
Baldwin, William Edwin Brigadier General
rank: September 19, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
*Mississippi militia company: Lieutenant, 12 years. *14th Mississippi Infantry: Captain, May 2, 1861, Colonel, May 1861.
*Captured at Fort Donelson. *Prisoner until August 1862.
*Wounded, captured at Vicksburg. *Exchanged October 13, 1863.
*Died after fall from a horse due to a broken stirrup, February 19, 1864, near Dog River Factory, Alabama.
Barksdale, William Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 12, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *U.S. Representative from Mississippi, 1852–1861.
*Quartermaster general of Mississippi. *13th Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, May 14, 1861.
*Mortally wounded during assaults on Little Round Top on second day at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. *Died July 3, 1863.
Barringer, Rufus Brigadier General
nom: May 30, 1864
rank, conf: June 1, 1864
*North Carolina legislator, 1848, 1850.
*1st North Carolina Cavalry: still Captain at Gettysburg, Major, August 28, 1863, Lt. Colonel, October 17, 1863.
*Captured at Namozine Church, April 3, 1865.
Barry, John D.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Barton, Seth M. Brigadier General
rank: March 11, 1862
nom: March 14, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*USMA, 1849 *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 10, 1861. *3rd Arkansas Infantry: Lt. Colonel, July 8, 1861.
*Captured in Vicksburg Campaign. *Paroled and exchanged, July 13, 1863.
*Bravery unquestioned; criticized by Pickett, at New Bern, and Ransom, at Drewry’s Bluff; relieved of command.
*Assigned a brigade in the Richmond defenses. *Captured at Sayler’s Creek.
Bate, William Brimage Brigadier General
nom: September 26, 1862
rank, conf: October 3, 1862
Major General
rank: February 23, 1864
nom: March 5, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*Mexican–American War.
*Tennessee legislator, 1860.
*2d Tennessee Infantry: Colonel, April 27, 1861.
*Severely wounded at Shiloh. *Wounded 3 times.
Battle, Cullen A. Brigadier General
rank: August 20, 1863
nom: August 25, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*3rd Alabama Infantry: Major, April 28, 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 31, 1861, Colonel, May 31, 1862.
*Severely injured by a horse falling on him before Chancellorsville.
*Badly wounded and incapacitated for further field service at Cedar Creek.
Beale, Richard Lee Turberville Brigadier General
rank: January 6, 1865
nom: January 7, 1865
conf: January 13, 1865
*U.S. Representative, March 4, 1847–March 3, 1849. *State senator, 1855–1860.
*9th Virginia Cavalry: 1st Lieutenant, April 1861, Captain, July 1861, Major, October 1861, Lt. Colonel, April 1862,
Colonel, September 15, 1862. *Wounded 3 times.
Beall, William N.R. Brigadier General
rank: April 11, 1862
nom: April 12, 1862
conf: April 17, 1862
*USMA, 1848. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, August 20, 1861.
*Surrendered, captured at Port Hudson.
*Paroled in 1864 to act as a Confederate agent to supply Confederate prisoners of war with proceeds of
cotton sales permitted to come through the federal blockade to New York City. *Released August 2, 1865.
Beauregard, Pierre G.T.
“Bory” “The Little Napoleon”
Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf: March 1, 1861
General (PACS)
rank, nom: July 21, 1861
conf: July 30, 1861
General (ACSA)
rank: July 21, 1861
nom; conf: August 31, 1861
*USMA, 1838. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, February 20, 1861.
*Commanded Confederate troops at Fort Sumter, First Bull Run and at Shiloh after Albert Sidney Johnston death.
*Abandoned Corinth, Mississippi to large Union force. *Defended Charleston, South Carolina in 1863 and 1864.
*Discerned and blocked U.S. Grant’s move against Petersburg at end of Overland Campaign so Lee could catch up.
Bee, Barnard E. Jr. Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: June 17, 1861
nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
(posthumous)
*USMA, 1845. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Brother of Hamilton Bee.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 3, 1861.
*1st South Carolina Regulars, artillery regiment, Lt. Colonel, June 1, 1861.
*Posthumous confirmation of brigadier general promotion over a month after death. *Eicher, Warner list as a general.
*Gave “Stonewall” Jackson his famous nickname at First Bull Run,
where Bee was mortally wounded July 21, 1861 and died July 22, 1861.
Bee, Hamilton Prioleau Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*Brother of Barnard Bee. *Wounded in Mexican–American War.
*Speaker, Texas House of Representatives, one term. *Brigadier General of Texas militia, 1861.
*In command at Brownsville, Texas, 1861. *Did mostly administrative work until Red River Campaign,
where performance criticized. *Wounded in face at Pleasant Hill.
Bell, Tyree H. Brigadier General
rank: February 28, 1865
nom, conf: March 2, 1865
*12th Tennessee Infantry: Captain, June 4, 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 5, 1861, Colonel, June 17, 1862.
*Cavalry commander under Forrest later in war.
*Wounded at Shiloh and Pulaski, Tennessee.
Benning, Henry L. “Old Rock” Brigadier General
rank: January 17, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*Six years as associate justice of Georgia Supreme Court.
*17th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, August 29, 1861.
*Wounded at the Wilderness.
Benton, Samuel   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Blanchard, Albert G. Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 21, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1829. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 15, 1840.
*Mexican–American War: Captain, Louisiana Infantry, and Major, 12th U.S. Infantry.
*1st Louisiana Infantry, Colonel, April 28, 1861. *Mainly in instruction camps, on conscript duty and court of inquiry.
*Dropped from C.S. Army on February 11, 1865.
Boggs, William R. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1853. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, February 1, 1861.
*Staff officer, engineer, 1861–1862: with Beauregard at Charleston, Bragg at Pensacola.
*Resigned to join Georgia Militia, December 21, 1861. *Colonel CSA, Engineers, July 14, 1862.
*Chief of staff for E. Kirby Smith in the Trans–Mississippi Department.
Bonham, Milledge Luke Brigadier General
rank: nom: April 23, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
reappointed:
rank: February 9, 1865
nom: February 16, 1865
conf: February 20, 1865
*Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War: Major General, South Carolina militia; Lt. Colonel, 12th U.S. Infantry.
*U.S. Representative, March 4, 1857– resigned December 29, 1860.
*Resigned as brigadier general, January 17, 1862, to take seat in Confederate Congress.
*Governor of South Carolina, December 18, 1862– December 18, 1864.
*Reappointed Brigadier General, February 9, 1865.
Bowen, John Stevens Brigadier General
rank, nom: March 14, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
Major General
rank: May 25, 1863
died, unconfirmed
*USMA, 1853. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 1, 1856. *Georgia Militia, Lt. Colonel, for a year.
*Captain, Missouri Militia. *Captured at Camp Jackson, Missouri, May 10, 1861.
*1st Missouri Infantry: Colonel, June 11, 1861. *Wounded at Shiloh.
*Paroled after surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.
*Weakened by dysentery, died 9 days later, July 13, 1863, near Raymond, Mississippi, aged 32.
*Died before Confederate Senate acted on major general nomination.
Bragg, Braxton Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf: March 7, 1861
Major general
rank, nom: September 12, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
General (ACSA)
rank: April 6, 1862
nom, conf: April 12, 1862
*USMA, 1837. *Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Captain and Brevet Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, January 3, 1856.
*Assigned to Gulf Coast. *Commanded Army of Tennessee, June 1862–November 1863.
*Invaded Kentucky; defeated at Perryville; forced to withdraw from Murfreesboro after Stones River.
*Victor at Chickamauga. *Grant forced retreat from Chattanooga. *Requested transfer of command to Joseph E. Johnston.
*Charged with conduct of Confederate military operations. *Joined Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina.
Branch, Lawrence O’Bryan Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 16, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*Aide in Florida War, 1841. *U.S. Representatives from North Carolina, March 4, 1855–March 3, 1861.
*Quartermaster and Paymaster of North Carolina, May 20, 1861.
*33rd North Carolina Infantry: Colonel, September 20, 1861.
*Killed September 17, 1862 at Antietam.
Brandon, William L. Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 18, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Pre-war state legislator. *Major General of Mississippi militia.
*21st Mississippi Infantry: Major, June 11, 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 12, 1861, Colonel, August 12, 1861.
*Lost a leg at Malvern Hill. *Resigned October 28, 1863 but appointed Brigadier General, June 18, 1864.
*Put in command of recruiting for Mississippi.
Brantley, William F. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: July 26, 1864
conf: February 21, 1865
*15th, later 29th, Mississippi Infantry: Captain, May 21, 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 1862, Colonel, December 13, 1862.
*Wounded at Shiloh and Stones River.
Bratton, John “Reliable” Brigadier General
rank: May 6, 1864
nom: June 1, 1864
conf: June 9, 1864
*6th South Carolina Infantry: Private, 1861, Captain, July 1861, Lt. Colonel, April 12, 1862, Colonel, May 1, 1862.
*Wounded at Williamsburg. *Wounded, captured at Seven Pines. Exchanged, early 1863.
*Wounded at Darbytown Road, October 7, 1864.
Breckinridge, John C. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 2, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: April 14, 1862
nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Kentucky legislator, 1849–1851. *U.S. Representative, March 4, 1851–March 3, 1855.
*In 1856, at age 35, elected U.S. Vice President (with President James Buchanan).
*Resigned early to take seat in U.S. Senate 1859–1861. *Fled to Confederacy, October 2, 1861.
*U.S. Senate declared him a traitor, December 2, 1861. *Commanded Reserve Corps at Shiloh.
*Wounded at Cold Harbor, horse fell on him. *Commanded Department of Southwest Virginia, early 1864.
*In Jubal Early’s 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign and raid on Washington.
*Appointed Confederate Secretary of War on February 4, 1865.
Brevard, Jr. Theodore W.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Brown, John Calvin Brigadier General
rank: August 30, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General (temporary)
rank, nom: August 4, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*3rd Tennessee Infantry: Private, Colonel, May 16, 1861.
*Captured at Fort Donelson. Exchanged August 15, 1862.
*Wounded at Perryville and Ezra Church. *Severely wounded at Franklin.
Browne, William Montague
“Constitution”
  See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not (nomination rejected).
Eicher lists in main section of commanders since acting Secretary of State.
Bryan, Goode Brigadier General
rank: August 29, 1863
nom: August 31, 1861
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1834. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 30, 1835. *Alabama legislator.
*Mexican–American War: Major, Alabama volunteers. *Georgia Militia, Captain, 1853–1861.
*16th Georgia Infantry: Captain, 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 19, 1861; Colonel, February 15, 1862.
*Resigned after Overland Campaign, September 20, 1864, due to failing health, aged 53.
Buckner, Simon Bolivar Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 14, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: August 16, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
Lieutenant General
rank, nom: September 20, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*USMA, 1844. *Mexican–American War (2 brevets; wounded). *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 26, 1855.
*Moved to Illinois; Colonel, Adjutant General, Illinois Militia, 1857.
*Moved to Kentucky, Captain, Kentucky Militia, 1858.
*Left by Pillow and Floyd to surrender Fort Donelson.
*Fortified Mobile. *Led a division in Longstreet’s corps at Knoxville.
*In Trans–Mississippi, chief of staff to E. Kirby Smith after Chickamauga.
*Died January 8, 1914, Munfordville, Kentucky, aged 91.
*Last survivor of 3 highest grades of general in Confederate States Army.
Buford, Abraham Brigadier General
rank: September 2, 1862
nom: November 29, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1841. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, October 22, 1854.
*Remained out of war while Kentucky remained “neutral.” *Two cousins were Union Army generals.
*Joined C.S. Army as brigadier general.
Bullock, Robert Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: November 29, 1864
nom: December 13, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Seminole War, 1856. *7th Florida Infantry: Captain, 1862, Major 1862, Colonel, June 2, 1862.
*Captured at Missionary Ridge. *Exchanged May 1864. *Wounded twice in Franklin–Nashville campaign.
*Badly wounded in retreat after Nashville; captured.
Cabell, William L. Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1863
nom: January 30, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*USMA, 1850. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 20, 1861. *Chief Quartermaster at First Bull Run.
*Organized Quartermaster corps at Richmond, 1861. *Cavalry commander. *Wounded twice.
*Captured at Mine Creek, Kansas, during Price’s 1864 Missouri Raid.
*Prisoner, October 1864–August 1865.
Campbell, Alexander William Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1865
nom, conf: March 2, 1865
*Mayor of Jackson, Tennessee, 1856. *Private, 1861, then Major and
Assistant Inspector General, Provisional Army of Tennessee.
*33rd Tennessee Infantry: Colonel, October 18, 1861. *Severely wounded at Shiloh.
*Captured at Lexington, Tennessee, July 1863, on a mission for governor.
*Exchanged December 1864.
Cantey, James Brigadier General
rank, nom: January 8, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*Two-term South Carolina legislator. *Mexican–American War.
*15th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, July 27, 1861. *Frequently in ill health.
Capers, Ellison Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1865
nom, conf: March 2, 1865
*South Carolina Military Academy, 1857. *South Carolina Infantry, Major, April 1861.
*24th South Carolina Infantry: Lt. Colonel, April 1, 1862, Colonel, January 20, 1864.
*Wounded three times. *Captured at Bentonville.
Carroll, William Henry Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 26, 1861
conf: December 20, 1861
*Eldest son of six-term governor of Tennessee, William Carroll.
*37th Tennessee Infantry:, Colonel, July 9, 1861.
*Proclaimed martial law in Knoxville, Tennessee.
*Arrested by Hardee for drunkenness, incompetency and neglect.
*Resigned February 1, 1863 and went to Canada.
Carter, John C. Colonel
Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: July 7, 1864
nom: July 8, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
(posthumous)
*22nd Tennessee Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, August 18, 1861.
*38th Tennessee Infantry: Captain, September 23, 1861, Major, 1861, Lt. Colonel, 1862, Colonel, April 25, 1862.
*Wounded at Perryville. *Mortally wounded at Franklin.
*Died December 10, 1864 at the Harrison home, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of battlefield, aged 26.
*Posthumous confirmation. *Eicher, Warner list as a general.
Chalmers, James R. Brigadier General
nom: February 10, 1862
rank: February 13, 1862
conf: February 17, 1862
re-conf: February 7, 1864
*9th Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, March 27, 1861.
*Wounded at Stones River and Collierville, Tennessee.
Chambliss, John R. Brigadier General (special)
rank: December 19, 1863
nom: January 9, 1864
conf: January 27, 1864
*USMA, 1853. *Resigned as Brevet 2d Lieutenant, U.S. Army, March 4, 1854.
*Militia officer, aide to Virginia governor.
*41st Virginia Infantry: Colonel, May 1861. *13th Virginia Cavalry: Colonel, July 13, 1861.
*Killed August 16, 1864 at engagement near Deep Bottom, Virginia, on Charles City Road.
Cheatham, Benjamin F. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 9, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: March 10, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
*Mexican–American War: Colonel, 3rd Tennessee Infantry.
*Major General, Tennessee militia.
*Wounded at Shiloh, Ezra Church.
*Hood charged he allowed Union troops to escape from Spring Hill, Tennessee in November 1864.
*Historians such as Ezra J. Warner side with Cheatham.
Chesnut, James Jr. Brigadier General
rank, nom: April 23, 1864
conf: June 9, 1864
*Husband of diarist Mary Boykin Chesnut. *South Carolina legislator.
*U.S. Senator from South Carolina, December 3, 1858–November 10, 1860.
*Provisional Confederate Congress delegate, February 1861.
*Colonel, aide to Beauregard at Fort Sumter. *Staff of Jefferson Davis.
*Commanded Reserve Forces of South Carolina, April 30, 1864–May 10, 1865.
Chilton, Robert H. Brigadier General (special)
rank: December 21, 1863
nom: December 22, 1863
conf: February 16, 1864
*USMA, 1837. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Major and Paymaster, U.S. Army, April 29, 1861.
*Virginia Provisional Army: Colonel, cavalry. *Adjutant and Inspector General Department, C.S.A., Lt. Colonel.
*Chief of staff to Robert E. Lee. *Inspector General of Army of Northern Virginia.
*First brigadier general nomination rejected by Confederate Senate, April 11, 1863.
*Relieved of field duty, April 1864.
*Finished war as Lt. Colonel, then Colonel, inspection branch, Department of Richmond.
Churchill, Thomas J. Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
Major General (temporary)
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Mexican–American War: captured, exchanged. *Recruited First Arkansas Mounted Rifles, Colonel, June 9, 1861.
*Surrendered at Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863. *Exchanged April 1863.
*May 13, 1864 promotion to major general by E. Kirby Smith rescinded by Jefferson Davis.
Clanton, James H. Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 18, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Mexican–American War private. *Alabama legislator. *CSA Alabama Cavalry: Captain, November 12, 1861.
*1st Alabama Cavalry: Colonel, December 3, 1861. *Resigned 1862.
*Aide to John G. Shorter, Braxton Bragg, Leonidas Polk.
*Cavalry brigade commander from June 1864. *Badly wounded, captured, Bluff Spring, Florida, March 1865.
Clark, Charles Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 22, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
*Mississippi legislator, 1838–1844. *Mexican–American War: volunteer colonel from Mississippi.
*Severely wounded at Shiloh, Baton Rouge, 1862.
*Captured; exchanged February 1863. *Resigned October 31, 1863.
*Governor of Mississippi, November 16, 1863–May 22, 1865.
Clark, John Bullock Jr. Brigadier General
rank: March 8, 1864
nom: March 12, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*6th Missouri Infantry, Missouri State Guard: Lieutenant, Captain, Major, July 1861, Colonel, June 28, 1862.
*Wounded at Wilson’s Creek. *9th Missouri Infantry, Colonel, November 16, 1862.
*Wounded at Jenkins’ Ferry.
Clayton, Henry DeLamar Brigadier General
rank: April 22, 1863
nom: April 23, 1863
conf: April 25, 1863
Major General (temporary)
rank, nom: July 7, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*Two-term Alabama legislator.
*1st Alabama Infantry: Colonel, March 28, 1861. *Resigned January 1862.
*Recruited 39th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, May 15, 1862. *Severely wounded at Stones River.
*Wounded at Chickamauga. *Led rear guard in retreat from Nashville.
Cleburne, Patrick R. Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1865
Major General
rank: December 13, 1862
nom: December 20, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Born March 17, 1828, County Cork, Ireland *Three years in British Army. *1st Arkansas Militia, Colonel, May 14, 1861.
*1st Arkansas Infantry: Colonel, July 23, 1861. *15th Arkansas Infantry: Colonel, October 15, 1861.
*Proposed abolition of slavery, arming slaves to fight for Confederacy in January 1864.
*Wounded at Richmond, Kentucky; Perryville. *Killed leading division at Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Clingman, Thomas Lanier Brigadier General
rank: May 17, 1862
nom: September 17, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*North Carolina legislator, 1835. *U.S. Representatives, March 4, 1843–March 3, 1845, March 4, 1847–March 7, 1858.
*U.S. Senator, May 7, 1858–withdrew March 28, 1861. *Refused to resign U.S. Senate seat, expelled.
*25th North Carolina Infantry: Colonel, August 13, 1861.
*Wounded at New Bern, North Carolina. *Badly wounded in battle along Weldon Railroad, August 1864.
Cobb, Howell Brigadier General
rank, nom. conf:
February 12, 1862
Major General
rank: September 9, 1862
nom: September 19, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*U.S. Treasury Secretary under President James Buchanan.
*16th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, July 15, 1861.
*Suggested a prisoner-of-war camp in southern Georgia, led to establishment of Andersonville.
*Vehemently opposed Robert E. Lee’s proposal to enlist slaves into army.
*After receiving a presidential pardon in 1868, publicly denounced Reconstruction.
*Brother of Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb.
Cobb, Thomas Reade Rootes   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Cocke, Philip St. George Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1832. *Resigned as 2d Lieutenant and Adjutant, U.S. Army, April 1, 1834.
*After John Brown’s Harpers Ferry raid, organized militia in home county.
*Provisional Army of Virginia: Brigadier General, April 21, 1861.
*19th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, April 27, 1861. *Led troops at Blackburn’s Ford, First Bull Run.
*Returned home after 8 months in ill health. *Suicide, December 26, 1861.
Cockrell, Francis M. Brigadier General
rank: July 18, 1863
nom: July 23, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Missouri State Guard, Captain, Brigadier General. *1st Missouri Infantry: Private, Captain, January 15, 1862.
*2d Missouri Infantry, Lt. Colonel, March 1862, Colonel, March 14, 1862.
*Wounded in Vicksburg, Atlanta campaigns. *Severely wounded at Franklin. *Captured at Fort Blakely (Mobile).
Colquitt, Alfred Holt Brigadier General
rank: September 1, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Mexican–American War: staff major. *U.S. Representative, March 4, 1853–March 3, 1855.
*Georgia legislator, 1859. *6th Georgia Infantry, Colonel, May 1861. *In command at Battle of Olustee, Florida.
Colston, Raleigh E. “Parlez” Brigadier General
nom: December 23, 1861
rank, conf: December 24, 1861
*Born October 21, 1825, Paris, France. *VMI, 1846. *16th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, May 2, 1861.
Conner, James Brigadier General (special)
nom: May 30, 1864
rank, conf: June 1, 1864
*U.S. District Attorney, 1856. *Prosecuted case of slave ship Echo.
*Hampton’s Legion, Captain, May 1861, Major, July 21, 1861.
*22nd North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, June 13, 1862. *Wounded, fractured leg at Gaines Mill.
*Lost leg at Cedar Creek, Virginia skirmish, October 13, 1864.
Cook, Philip Brigadier General
rank: August 5, 1864
nom: August 8, 1864
conf: February 3, 1865
*Seminole War, 1836. *Georgia state senator.
*4th Georgia Infantry, Private, April 1861, Sergeant, May 1861, 1st Lieutenant, Assistant Adjutant General,
October 2, 1861, Lt. Colonel, August 1862, Colonel, November 1, 1862. *Wounded three times,
the last at Fort Stedman on March 25, 1865. *Captured while in hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, April 2, 1865.
Cooke, John Rogers Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*U.S. Army commission after college. *Son of Union Brigadier General (Brevet Major General) Philip St. George Cooke.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 30, 1861.
*Assistant Quartermaster, Army of the Potomac, 1861. *Artillery, Aquia District, Virginia, 1861–1862.
*27th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 1862. *Wounded 7 times, skull fracture at Fredericksburg.
Cooper, Douglas H. Brigadier General
rank: May 2, 1863
nom: June 23, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *U.S. agent to Choctaw Nation, 1853.
*1st Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, Colonel, November 1861.
*Mainly stationed in Indian Territory.
*Superintendent of Indian Affairs. *Commanded Indian brigade in Sterling Price’s Missouri campaign, 1864.
Cooper, Samuel Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
March 16, 1861
General (ACSA)
rank: May 16, 1861
nom, conf: August 31, 1861
*Born June 12, 1798, Dutchess County, New York. *USMA, 1815.
*Colonel and Adjutant General, U.S. Army, 1852. *Married a sister of U.S. Senator James Murray Mason of Virginia.
Resigned as Colonel, U.S. Army, March 7, 1861.
*Ranking general officer of the Confederate Army, May 16, 1861.
*Adjutant and Inspector General throughout the war.
*Never in field command but contributed valuable organizational skills.
Corse, Montgomery Dent Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War: Captain, 1st Virginia Volunteers. *Virginia militia: Major, April 10, 1861.
*17th Virginia Infantry: Colonel, June 10, 1861.
*Wounded three times. *Captured at Sayler’s Creek.
Cosby, George B. Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*USMA, 1852. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 10, 1861. *Major, Assistant Adjutant General, June 20, 1861.
*Staff major for Buckner at Fort Donelson; Captured. *Exchanged August 15, 1862.
Cox, William Ruffin Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom, conf: June 2, 1864
*2nd North Carolina Infantry: Major, June 19, 1861, Lt. Colonel, September 17, 1862, Colonel, March 20, 1863.
*Wounded eleven times. *Died December 26, 1919, Richmond, Virginia, one of the last surviving Confederate generals.
Crittenden, George Bibb Brigadier General
nom: August 13, 1861
rank: August 15, 1861
conf: August 16, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: November 9, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
re-conf: February 17, 1862
*Brother of Union Major General Thomas L. Crittenden. *Black Hawk War. *Texas Army.
*Captured in Mier Expedition, exchanged. *U.S. Army Mounted Rifles, Captain, May 27, 1846. *Mexican–American War.
*Cashiered August 19, 1848, restored March 15, 1849. *Resigned as Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, June 10, 1861.
*Resigned as major general after badly defeated at Fishing Creek (Mill Springs).
*Hardee ordered him arrested for drunkenness, April 1, 1862, restored, April 18, 1862.
*Court of inquiry ordered by Braxton Bragg, July 24, 1862.
*Resigned as major general, reverted to colonel, October 23, 1862.
Daniel, Junius Brigadier General
rank: September 1, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*USMA, 1851. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, January 14, 1858.
*14th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, June 3, 1861.
*45th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 14, 1862. *Wounded at Malvern Hill.
*Mortally wounded at “Bloody Angle” at Spotsylvania, May 12, 1864, died the next day.
Davidson, Henry B. Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 18, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1853. *Mexican–American War, enlisted at 15. *Served on frontier with U.S. Army.
*Dropped as Captain, U.S. Army, as AWOL, July 30, 1861.
*Confederate staff officer, major, April 1861, Colonel, June 1862.
*Captured at Island Number 10, April 4, 1862, exchanged August 15, 1862.
Davis, Jefferson “Major General” in the militia, or Army of Mississippi
rank, nom: 1861
President and Commander in Chief of the Confederate States of America
rank, elected: 1861
*USMA,1828 and as Second Lieutenant was stationed at Fort Crawford, Michigan Territory under the command of his future father in law, future US President Zachary Taylor.
*Elected to the House of Representatives in 1845.
*Resigned his House seat to serve as a “Colonel” of a volunteer regiment, the 155th Infantry Regiment in the Mexican-American War.
*Offered commission as “Brigadier General” in 1847 by President Polk, declined arguing that the states only, not the President, had powers to appoint militia officers.
*Appointed US Senator in 1847 by Governor Brown of Mississippi to fill a vacant seat.
*Resigned as U.S. Senator from Mississippi in January, 1861, following Mississippi’s adoption of an ordinance of secession.
*Accepted an appointment as a “Major General” from Governor John J. Pettus in the Army of the Mississippi, consistent with his views on state powers over military appointments
Elected President of the Confederate States of America in February, 1861.
*At the conclusion of the Civil War, indicted for treason but never tried; granted Presidential amnesty by President Johnson in 1868.
Elected to the US Senate in 1875 but was not able to serve because of the impediments in Section 3 of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which were overcome in some other cases.
*in 1978 citizenship was restored under a law signed by President Carter who noted it as “the last act of reconciliation in the Civil War.
Davis, Joseph R. Brigadier General
rank: September 15, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 8, 1862
*Nephew of Jefferson Davis. *Mississippi legislator.
*10th Mississippi Infantry: Lt. Colonel, April 12, 1861.
*Jefferson Davis staff as Colonel, August 31, 1861. *Wounded at Gettysburg.
Davis, William G.M. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*1st Florida Cavalry: raised, equipped, Lt. Colonel, November 4, 1861, Colonel, January 1, 1862.
*Served in East Tennessee. *Resigned May 6, 1863.
*Operated and managed blockade runners thereafter.
Dearing, James   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as general; Eicher does not.
*Despite lack of Senate confirmation often identified as last Confederate general to die of wounds from battle.
Deas, Zachariah Cantey Brigadier General
rank: December 13, 1862
nom: December 20, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *Aide to Joseph E. Johnston, July 1861.
*22nd Alabama Infantry, Colonel, October 25, 1861.
*Badly wounded, in temporary brigade command at Shiloh.
*Wounded at Franklin.
De Lagnel, Julius A. Lt. Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: April 15, 1862
nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
declined July 31, 1862
*U.S. Army officer, 1847–1861. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 17, 1861.
*Captain of Artillery, Army of the Northwest, June 1861. *Wounded defending Rich Mountain, June 11, 1861.
*Captured at Laurel Hill, July 13, 1861, exchanged December 18, 1861 for James B. Ricketts.
*Appointed brigadier general to rank from April 12, 1862. Confirmed but declined commission, July 31, 1862.
*Eicher, Warner nonetheless list as a general. *Briefly served as artillery major in Army of Northern Virginia.
*Served in ordnance bureau in Richmond and Fayetteville, North Carolina as Lt. Colonel.
Deshler, James   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Dibrell, George Gibbs Brigadier General
rank: July 26, 1864
nom: January 24, 1865
conf: January 28, 1865
*Tennessee legislator. *Tennessee militia, Private, June 1861.
*25th Tennessee Infantry, Lt. Colonel, August 10, 1861.
*8th Tennessee Cavalry (13th Tennessee Cavalry), Colonel, September 1862.
*Cavalry brigade commander under Nathan Bedford Forrest, Joseph Wheeler.
*Run over by horse and incapacitated, May 1863. *Appointed brigadier general for new units. *Wounded twice.
Dockery, Thomas P. Brigadier General
rank: August 10, 1863
2d nom: June 1, 1864
conf: June 10, 1864
*5th Arkansas Militia, Colonel, June 1861. *19th Arkansas Infantry: Colonel, May 12, 1862.
*Commanded 2nd brigade under John S. Bowen at Vicksburg. *Captured, paroled, exchanged.
*Brigade command at Marks’ Mills, Jenkins’ Ferry.
Doles, George Pierce Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Georgia militia captain.
*4th Georgia Infantry: Captain, May 9, 1861, Colonel, May 26, 1862.
*Stationed near Norfolk, Virginia, first year of war. *Wounded at Malvern Hill.
*Killed at Totopotomoy Creek, also known as Bethesda Church, June 2, 1864, aged 34.
Donelson, Daniel Smith Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 9, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General (posthumous)
rank: January 17, 1863
nom: March 5, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1825. *Nephew of Andrew Jackson.
*Brother of Jackson’s private secretary, Andrew Jackson Donelson, who adhered to the Union.
*Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 1826. *Speaker of Tennessee House of Representatives.
*Tennessee Militia brigadier general. *Died from chronic diarrhea at Montvale Springs, Tennessee, April 17, 1863,
before major general promotion was confirmed; Senate was without knowledge Donelson died.
Drayton, Thomas F. Brigadier General
rank, nom:
September 25, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1828. *Brother of Union Navy Captain Percival Drayton.
*Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, August 15, 1836. *South Carolina legislator.
*In command at unsuccessful Battle of Port Royal. *Much criticized by superiors.
*Minor departmental command and boards of inquiry in the Trans–Mississippi Department after November 26, 1862.
Du Bose, Dudley M. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: November 16, 1864
nom: November 30, 1864
conf: December 5, 1864
*Lieutenant, aide to Robert Toombs, July 1861. *15th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, January 1863.
*Wounded at Chickamauga. *Captured at Sayler’s Creek, April 6, 1865.
Duke, Basil W. Brigadier General
rank: September 15, 1864
nom: September 19, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Supported secession of Missouri. *Brother-in-law of John Hunt Morgan.
*2nd Kentucky Cavalry: Private, soon 2nd Lieutenant, then 1st Lieutenant, November 1861.
*Wounded at Shiloh. *Lt. Colonel, August 1862, Colonel, December 7, 1862.
*Brigade command under Morgan, April 1863.
*Captured during Morgan’s Ohio raid; prisoner at Buffington Island, Ohio for more than year, exchanged August 1864.
*Escort to Jefferson Davis and Confederate government at end of war.
*Died September 16, 1916, New York City, aged 78.
Duncan, Johnson K. Brigadier General
rank, conf: January 7, 1862
nom: January 9, 1862
*USMA, 1849. *Seminole Wars. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, January 31, 1855.
*1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery: Major, Colonel, 1861.
*Captured April 28, 1862 at Fort Jackson, Louisiana. *Exchanged August 15, 1862.
*Chief of staff to Braxton Bragg. *Died of typhoid fever, December 18, 1862, Knoxville Tennessee.
Early, Jubal Anderson
“Jube” “Jubilee”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: January 17, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
Lieutenant General (temporary)
rank, nom, conf: May 31, 1864
*USMA, 1837. *Seminole War. *Mexican–American War. *Voted against secession in Virginia convention.
*Brigadier General of Virginia militia, April 10, 1861.
*24th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, May 21, 1861. *Wounded at Williamsburg.
*Led a Confederate army in the Valley Campaigns of 1864, including the Battles of Monocacy, Fort Stevens
and Cedar Creek. *Command dispersed at Waynesboro.
Echols, John Brigadier General
rank, nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Virginia legislator. *27th Virginia Infantry: Lt. Colonel, May 30, 1861, Colonel, October 14, 1861.
*Severely wounded at the First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862.
Ector, Mathew D. Brigadier General
rank: August 23, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
*Georgia state legislator. *Moved to Texas. *Mexican–American War. *Texas legislator, 1855.
*Texas Cavalry: Private, Lt. Colonel, May 1861. *J. L. Hogg’s brigade, Adjutant, May 1862.
*14th Texas Cavalry (dismounted), Colonel, July 1862.
*Wounded at Chickamauga. *Lost leg at New Hope Church.
Elliott, Stephen Jr. Brigadier General (special)
rank, nom: May 24, 1864
conf: May 28, 1864
*11th South Carolina Infantry, Captain, June 12, 1861. *Wounded at Fort Beauregard, November 7, 1861.
*Head wound, Fort Sumter, December 11, 1863. *Holcombe’s Legion, Colonel, April 20, 1864.
*Badly wounded deploying troops at the Crater. *Badly wounded at Bentonville.
*Elected to South Carolina State legislature in 1866 but died before serving, February 21, 1866, aged 35.
Elzey, Arnold Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: December 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1837. *Dropped last name of Jones. *Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Captain, 2nd Artillery, U.S. Army, April 25, 1861.
1st Maryland Infantry: Colonel, June 17, 1861. *Wounded at Cross Keys.
*Severely wounded at Gaines Mill. *Commanded Department of Richmond.
*Organized Local Defense Brigade. *Transferred to Artillery, Army of Tennessee, September 8, 1864.
Evans, Clement A. Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 19, 1864
conf: May 20, 1864
*Georgia State senator in 1859. *31st Georgia Infantry: Private, 1861, Major, November 18, 1861, Colonel, May 13, 1862.
*With Army of Northern Virginia from the Peninsula campaign until Appomattox.
*With Jubal Early in Valley Campaigns of 1865. *Wounded five times.
*Retired as minister, 1892, wrote 12-volume Confederate Military History, other works.
Evans, Nathan G. “Shanks” Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 1, 1861
conf: December 19, 1861
*USMA, 1848. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, February 27, 1861
*Major and Assistant Adjutant General, South Carolina militia, January 1861.
*Assistant Adjutant General, James Island Forces, April 1861–July 20, 1861.
*4th South Carolina Infantry, Colonel, July 1861. *Detected McDowell’s turning movement at First Bull Run.
*Commanded at Ball’s Bluff. *From early 1863 was in difficulty,
not in command due to apparent intoxication, presumed incompetence.
*Fell from horse, April 16, 1864. *Reconfirmed June 10, 1864.
Fagan, James F. Brigadier General
rank: September 12, 1862
nom; September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
Major General (temporary)
April 25, 1864
nom: June 11, 1864
conf: June 13, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *One–term Arkansas legislator.
*1st Arkansas Infantry: Colonel, May 6, 1861.
*6th Arkansas Cavalry, Colonel, July 11, 1862.
*Fought at Prairie Grove, against Camden Expedition, during Price’s 1864 Missouri Raid.
Featherston, Winfield Scott
“Swet”
Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*Creek War, 1837. *U.S. Representative from Mississippi, March 4, 1847–March 3, 1851.
CSA Infantry: Captain, May 21, 1861. *17th Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, June 4, 1861.
*Wounded at Frayser’s Farm. *Transferred to Vicksburg, became separated from main army and avoided capture.
Ferguson, Samuel W. Brigadier General
rank: July 23, 1863
nom: July 28, 1863
conf: February 14, 1864
*USMA, 1857. *Utah War (Mormon Expedition). *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, March 1, 1861.
*Served on Beauregard’s staff from March 1861 until after Shiloh.
*28th Mississippi Cavalry, Lt. Colonel, February 24, 1862. *5th South Carolina Infantry: Colonel, May 7, 1863.
*Cavalry duty in Vicksburg campaign.
Field, Charles W. Brigadier General
rank: March 9, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
Major General
nom: February 6, 1864
rank, conf: February 12, 1864
*USMA, 1849. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 30, 1861.
*6th Virginia Cavalry: Major, June 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 1861,
Colonel, August 1861. *Brigadier general appointment reconfirmed March 18, 1862, transferred to infantry.
*Badly wounded at Second Bull Run. *Superintendent of Bureau of Conscription until recovery.
*Led Hood’s old division for remaining campaigns of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Wounded at the Wilderness.
Finegan, Joseph Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
April 5, 1862
*Born Clones, Ireland. *In early 20s, emigrated to Florida, 1834.
*1st Florida Battalion: Lt. Colonel, January 14, 1862. *In charge of military affairs of State of Florida.
*Nominal command at Battle of Olustee. *Transferred with brigade of Florida regiments to Virginia, May, 1864.
*Fought at Cold Harbor, Petersburg. *Returned to duty in Florida, March 20, 1865.
Finley, Jesse Johnson Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 18, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Seminole War, Captain, 1836. *Served in legislatures of Arkansas and Florida.
*Mayor of Memphis, Tennessee. *Judge in Florida, 1852.
*Resigned as Confederate district judge to enlist as Private, March 1862, Captain, March 1862.
*6th Florida Infantry: Colonel, April 14, 1862. *Wounded at Resaca, Georgia.
*Severely wounded at Jonesboro, incapacitated for field duty.
Floyd, John Buchanan Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 23, 1861
August 28, 1861
*Virginia legislator, 1847. *Governor of Virginia, January 1, 1848–January 16, 1852.
*Secretary of War under President James Buchanan until December 29, 1860.
*Indicted by D.C. Grand Jury for conspiracy and treason, January 27, 1861.
*Provisional Army of Virginia, Major General.
*Transferred command of Fort Donelson to Gideon J. Pillow, escaped with his troops.
*Removed from command by Jefferson Davis, March 11, 1862.
*Virginia militia, Major General, May 17, 1862–August 26, 1863, when died at Abingdon, Virginia.
Forney, John H. Brigadier General
rank March 10, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
re-conf: March 18, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: October 27, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1852. *Younger brother of William Henry Forney.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, January 23, 1861.
*Colonel, CSA and Inspector General of forces near Pensacola, March 7, 1861–June 4, 1861.
*10th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, June 4, 1861. *Wounded at Dranesville, December 20, 1861.
*Division command at Vicksburg; captured, exchanged October 13, 1863.
*In Trans–Mississippi Department in command of John G. Walker’s former division.
Forney, William Henry Brigadier General
rank: February 15, 1865
nom: February 22, 1865
conf: February 23, 1865
*Older brother of John H. Forney. *Mexican–American War. *Alabama legislator, 1859.
*10th Alabama Infantry: Captain, June 4, 1861. *Wounded at Dranesville; 4 times in total.
*Wounded, left on field at Gettysburg, captured. *Prisoner for over a year. *Exchanged August 3, 1864.
Forrest, Nathan Bedford Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: December 4, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
Lieutenant General
rank: February 28, 1865
nom, conf: March 2, 1865
*Stockman, Blacksmith, Planter, Slave Trader. *7th Tennessee Cavalry: Private, June 14, 1861.
*Forrest’s Cavalry Battalion, Lt. Colonel, October 1861. *3rd Tennessee Cavalry: Colonel, January 3, 1862.
*Led his troops out of Fort Donelson, with permission, before surrender.
*Brigade command, Army of Tennessee, at Shiloh.
*Captured Union garrison, supplies at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
*Independent command in North Mississippi and West Tennessee.
*Routed superior force at Brice’s Crossroads, June 1864; later at Tupelo.
*Overwhelmed at Selma, Alabama, surrendered, April 1865. *Wounded 9 times.
Frazer, John W.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
French, Samuel Gibbs Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 23, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: August 31, 1862
nom: October 22, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1843. *Mexican–American War; wounded.
*Resigned as Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U.S. Army, May 13, 1856.
*Colonel, ordnance, Mississippi militia, February 12, 1861.
*Relieved before Nashville due to eye infection, temporary near blindness.
*Served and surrendered at Mobile. *Died April 20, 1910, aged 91.
Frost, Daniel M. Brigadier General
rank: March 3, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 10, 1862
*USMA, 1844. *Mexican–American War. *Wounded in head, damaged eyesight, 1852.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 31, 1853. *Missouri Senator. *Missouri militia brigadier general.
*Surrendered Camp Jackson at St. Louis to Nathaniel Lyon, May 10, 1861.
*Captured, exchanged for James A. Mulligan, November 1, 1861.
*Left army without resigning, went to Mexico, Cuba and Canada when wife banished from home near St. Louis.
*Dropped from army rolls, December 9, 1863. *Returned to Missouri, 1865.
Gano, Richard Montgomery Brigadier General
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Military service against Indians. *Doctor; Texas legislator. *Gano’s Texas Cavalry, Captain, March 1862;
Major, July 4, 1862. *7th Kentucky Cavalry, Colonel, September 1, 1862. *Transferred to Indian Territory.
*Wounded in Camden campaign.
Gardner, Franklin Brigadier General
April 11, 1862
nom: April 12, 1862
conf: April 19, 1862
Major General
rank: December 13, 1862
nom: December 20, 1862
re-nom: June 6, 1864
conf: June 10, 1864
*Born in New York City. *USMA, 1843. *Mexican–American War. *Wife was from Louisiana.
*Dropped as Captain, U.S. Army, for abandoning post, May 7, 1861.
*CSA Captain, Assistant Adjutant General, September 11, 1861.
*Major General to rank from December 13, 1862, not confirmed until June 10, 1864.
*In command and surrendered Port Hudson, Louisiana; captured. *Exchanged in August 1864.
*Brother and father (retired veteran and U.S. Treasury clerk until 1867) adhered to the Union.
Gardner, William M. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 14, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
re-conf: June 10, 1864
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War; wounded. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, January 19, 1861.
*8th Georgia Infantry: Lt. Colonel, May 1861, Colonel, July 21, 1861. *Leg shattered by a ball at First Bull Run.
*Commanded District of Middle Florida, participated in Battle of Olustee
*Command of military prisons east of the Mississippi in 1864. *Commandant of post at Richmond, Virginia at end of the war.
Garland, Samuel Jr. Brigadier General
rank: May 23, 1862
nom: September 23, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
(posthumous)
*VMI, 1849. *11th Virginia Infantry: Captain, April 24, 1861, Colonel, July 1861.
*Wounded at Williamsburg. *Killed September 14, 1862, at Fox’s Gap, South Mountain, Maryland, aged 31.
*Posthumous confirmation as brigadier general. *Eicher, Warner nonetheless list as a general.
Garnett, Richard B. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 14, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1841. *Seminole Wars. *No active service in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 17, 1861.
*Major, ACSA Artillery, May 1861. *Georgia Legion, Lt. Colonel, August 31, 1861.
*Arrested, probably unfairly, by Stonewall Jackson for neglect of duty; court martial never concluded.
*Killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, in Pickett’s Charge, aged 45.
*Cousin of Robert S. Garnett.
Garnett, Robert S. Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 6, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861 (posthumous)
*USMA, 1841. *Mexican–American War. *Commandant of cadets at West Point, November 1, 1852–July 31, 1854.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, April 30, 1861. *Colonel, Virginia Provisional Army.
*In command in northwestern Virginia, June 8, 1861. *Retreated after Rich Mountain, Laurel Hill.
*Killed at Corrick’s Ford, (West) Virginia, on the Cheat River, July 13, 1861. *Posthumous confirmation.
*Eicher, Warner list as a general. *Often shown as first general killed in Civil War, before First Bull Run.
*Cousin of Richard B. Garnett.
Garrott, Isham Warren   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Gartrell, Lucius Jeremiah Brigadier General
rank: August 22, 1864
nom: August 23, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Georgia legislator. *U.S. Representative from Georgia, March 4, 1857–withdrew January 23, 1861.
*7th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, May 31, 1861. *Confederate Congressman, February 18, 1862–February 17, 1864.
*Opposed Sherman in South Carolina with Georgia reserves regiments. *Wounded at Coosawhatchie.
Gary, Martin Witherspoon
“Bald Eagle”, “Mart”
Brigadier General
rank: May 19, 1864
nom: June 13, 1864
conf: June 14, 1864
*South Carolina legislator.
*Hampton’s Legion: Captain, June 12, 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 16, 1862, Colonel, August 25, 1862.
*Escaped from Appomattox Court House and helped escort Jefferson Davis and cabinet south.
*Last meeting of cabinet at his mother’s home in Cokesbury, South Carolina.
Gatlin, Richard C. Brigadier General
rank: July 8, 1861
nom: August 13, 1861
conf: August 16, 1861
*USMA, 1832. *Mexican–American War, wounded. *Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, May 29, 1861.
*Criticized for loss of Fort Hatteras, New Bern. *Relieved of command March 19, 1862.
*Resigned Confederate commission September 8, 1862.
*Major General and Adjutant General of North Carolina militia, September 1862–April 26, 1865.
Gholson, Samuel J. Brigadier General
rank: May 6, 1864
nom: May 25, 1864
conf: June 1, 1864
*Mississippi legislator 3 times. *U.S. Representative from Mississippi, part of two terms. *U.S. District Judge, 1839–1861.
*14th Mississippi Infantry: Private, January 1861, Captain May 1861, Colonel, October 1861.
*Wounded, captured at Fort Donelson. *Exchanged August 15, 1862. *Wounded at Second Corinth.
*Wounded at Jackson, Mississippi, June 6, 1864. *Lost arm and captured at Egypt, Mississippi, December 28, 1864.
Gibson, Randall Lee Brigadier General (special)
rank: January 11, 1864
nom: January 28, 1864
conf: February 1, 1864
*U.S. attache, Madrid, Spain. *Aide to Louisiana Governor Moore. *1st Louisiana Artillery, Captain, May 8, 1861.
*13th and 20th Louisiana Infantry: Colonel, November 30, 1862. *Captured at Cuba Station, Alabama, May 8, 1865.
Gilmer, Jeremy Francis   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Girardey, Victor J. B.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate). *Eicher says not confirmed.
*Warner lists as a general, says received commission August 3, 1864.
Gist, States Rights Brigadier General
nom: March 19, 1862
rank, conf: May 20, 1862
*Brigadier General of state militia, 1859. *Colonel and aide to Barnard Bee at First Bull Run where wounded.
*Wounded in hand at Atlanta, July 22, 1864.
*Mortally wounded at Franklin, died at field hospital the same day, November 30, 1864.
Gladden, Adley H. Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 30, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*Seminole War. *Major, Lt. Colonel of Palmetto Regiment in Mexican–American War.
*Severely wounded at Battle of Belen Gate.
*Lt. Colonel of 1st South Carolina regiment but resigned to become secession convention delegate.
*1st Louisiana Infantry Regiment: Colonel, February 21, 1861.
*Mortally wounded at Shiloh; died 6 days later, April 12, 1862, aged 51.
Godwin, Archibald C.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher says appointment unconfirmed at death.
Goggin, James M.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Gordon, George Washington Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: August 15, 1864
nom: August 16, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*11th Tennessee Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, drillmaster, May 1861, Captain, July 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 27, 1862.
*Captured at Tazewell, Tennessee and exchanged in November 1862. *Colonel, December 1862.
*Wounded and captured at Stones River. *Exchanged 1863.
*Led Vaughn’s Brigade at Franklin, November 30, 1864; wounded and captured.
*Prisoner until paroled July 24, 1865.
Gordon, James Byron Brigadier General
rank: September 28, 1863
nom: September 29, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*North Carolina legislator, 1850. *1st North Carolina Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, April 1861.
*9th North Carolina Cavalry: Captain, May 8, 1861, Major, May 16, 1861. *1st North Carolina Cavalry: Colonel, July 23, 1863.
*Wounded at Auburn, Virginia, October 14, 1863. *Mortally wounded at Meadow Bridge, Virginia, May 12, 1864.
*Died May 18, 1864, Richmond, Virginia.
Gordon, John Brown Brigadier General
rank: May 7, 1863
nom: May 11, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
Major General
rank, nom, conf:
May 14, 1864
*6th Alabama Infantry: Captain, April 15, 1861, Major, May 14, 1861, Lt. Colonel, December 26, 1861, Colonel, April 28, 1862.
*Severely wounded at Antietam. *Earlier brigadier general nomination November 1, 1862 to rank from that date not confirmed.
Gorgas, Josiah Brigadier General (special)
rank: November 10, 1864
nom: November 15, 1864
conf: November 19, 1864
*USMA, 1841. *Born in Pennsylvania; married daughter of ex-Governor Gayle of Alabama.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 3, 1861. *Major, Chief of ordnance of Confederate States, 1861–1865.
*Kept armies supplied with arms and ammunition. *Ran five blockade runners for ordnance department.
Govan, Daniel C. Brigadier General
rank: December 29, 1863
nom: January 9, 1864
conf: February 5, 1864
*Captain, Arkansas Militia, May 1861. *2nd Arkansas Infantry: Lt. Colonel, June 5, 1861, Colonel, January 28, 1862.
*Captured at Jonesboro, September 1, 1864. *Exchanged for George Stoneman, October 2, 1864. *Wounded at Nashville.
Gracie, Archibald Jr. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Born in New York City. *USMA, 1854. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 3, 1856.
*Married Josephine Mayo of Richmond. *Captain of a Mobile militia company.
*3rd Alabama Infantry: Captain, April 18, 1861. *11th Alabama Infantry: Major, July 12, 1861.
*43rd Alabama Infantry: Colonel, May 15, 1862. *Severely wounded at Bean’s Station, Tennessee.
*Killed December 2, 1864, at Petersburg, aged 31. *Other family members adhered to the Union.
Granbury, Hiram B. Brigadier General (special)
rank: February 29, 1864
nom: March 5, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*Chief justice (chairman of county supervisors) of McLennan County, 1856–1858.
*7th Texas Infantry: Captain, May 1861, Major, November 1861, Colonel, August 29, 1862.
*Captured at Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862. *Exchanged August 15, 1862. *Wounded at Chickamauga.
*Killed at Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Gray, Henry Brigadier General
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Mississippi legislator for one term. *Louisiana legislator, 1860.
*Enlisted as Private. *Organized 28th Louisiana Infantry at request of Jefferson Davis; Colonel, May 2, 1862.
*Wounded at Bayou Teche. *At times in brigade command. *Original nomination of April 8, 1864 not confirmed.
*Elected as Confederate Congressman from North Carolina without his knowledge.
*Eicher says: Representative from Louisiana, December 28, 1864–March 17, 1865.
Grayson, John B. Brigadier General
nom: August 13, 1861
nom: August 15, 1861
conf: August 16, 1861
*USMA, 1826. *Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, and commissary of subsistence, July 1, 1861.
*Brigadier General, North Carolina Militia, 1861. *Assigned to Department of Middle and Eastern Florida.
*Died from disease of lungs (tuberculosis, pneumonia), October 21, 1861, Tallahassee, Florida.
Green, Martin E. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 23, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Organized and elected Colonel, July 1861, of Missouri cavalry command under Sterling Price.
*Brigadier General, Missouri State Guard, December 2, 1861. *Colonel, CSA, April 1862.
*Wounded at Vicksburg, June 25, 1863. *Killed while looking over the parapet at Vicksburg, June 27, 1863.
Green, Thomas Brigadier General
rank: May 20, 1863
nom: May 23, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Fought at San Jacinto. *Mexican–American War.
*Clerk of the Texas Supreme Court, 1841–1861. *5th Texas Cavalry: Colonel, August 20, 1861.
*Fought at Galveston, January 1863. *Killed by a shell from a Union gunboat, April 12, 1864, Blair’s Landing, Louisiana.
Greer, Elkanah Brigadier General
nom: October 4, 1862
rank, conf: October 8, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *3rd Texas Cavalry: Colonel, July 1, 1861.
*Wounded at Pea Ridge. *Chief of bureau of conscription in Trans–Mississippi Department, October 8, 1862–May 26, 1865.
*Commanded reserve forces of department during 1864 operations and March–May, 1865.
Gregg, John Brigadier General
rank: August 29, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
*Judge. *Member of Texas secession convention. *Resigned from Provisional Confederate Congress in 1861.
*7th Texas Infantry: Colonel, September 1861. *Captured at Fort Donelson. *Exchanged August 15, 1862.
*Severely wounded at Chickamauga. *Killed at Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads, October 7, 1864.
Gregg, Maxcy Brigadier General
rank, nom: December 14, 1861
conf: December 24, 1861
*Mexican–American War: Major, 12th U.S. Infantry; discharged July 25, 1848.
*1st South Carolina Volunteer Infantry: Colonel, January 25, 1861. *1st South Carolina Infantry: Colonel, July 25, 1861.
*Wounded at Antietam. *Mortally wounded at Fredericksburg; died December 15, 1862.
Griffith, Richard Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 2, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*Born in Philadelphia. *Mexican–American War. *Mississippi State treasurer, 2 terms. *Brigadier general, Mississippi Militia.
*12th Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, May 23, 1861. *Brigade command at Seven Days’ Battles.
*Mortally wounded June 29, 1862 at Savage’s Station, died the same day in Richmond.
Hagood, Johnson Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*South Carolina Military Academy, 1847. *South Carolina militia brigadier general.
*1st South Carolina Volunteers, Colonel, January 27, 1861.
Hampton, Wade Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 23, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General
rank: August 3, 1863
nom: September 3, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
Lieutenant General
rank, nom: February 14, 1865
conf: February 15, 1865
*South Carolina legislator. *Organized and equipped Hampton’s Legion, Colonel, July 12, 1861.
*Head wound at First Bull Run. *Wounded at Seven Pines, Brandy Station.
*Severely wounded, twice, at Gettysburg.
*Succeeded to command of cavalry corps after Jeb Stuart’s death at Yellow Tavern.
*Overland Campaign. *Siege of Petersburg until January 1865, then with Joseph E. Johnston in Carolinas.
Hanson, Roger W.
“Flintlock”, “Bench Leg”
Brigadier General
rank: December 13, 1862
nom: December 20, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
(posthumous)
*Mexican–American War. *Kentucky legislator, 1853–1857. *Colonel, Kentucky State Guard, August 19, 1861.
*2nd Kentucky Infantry, Colonel, September 3, 1861. *Captured at Fort Donelson.
*Exchanged for Michael Corcoran, August 15, 1862.
*Mortally wounded in a charge at Stones River, January 2, 1863.
*Died two days later near the battlefield, aged 35. *Posthumous confirmation. *Eicher, Warner list as a general.
Hardee, William Joseph
“Reliable”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Lieutenant General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 13, 1862
*USMA, 1838. *Mexican–American War, captured and exchanged, wounded.
*Published a standard textbook on infantry tactics.
*Commandant of USMA, July 22, 1856–September 8, 1860.
*Resigned as Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, January 31, 1861.
*Colonel ACSA Cavalry, March 16, 1861. *Wounded at Shiloh.
*Opposed Sherman’s March to the Sea.
Hardeman, William Polk
“Gotch”
Brigadier General
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Texas War of Independence *Mexican–American War. *4th Texas Cavalry: Captain, May 1861,
Lt. Colonel, March 28, 1862, Colonel, January 1863.
*Sibley’s New Mexico expedition, Valverde. *Red River campaign.
Harris, Nathaniel H. Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1864
nom: February 8, 1864
conf: February 17, 1864
*19th Mississippi Infantry: Captain, June 1, 1861, Lt. Colonel, November 24, 1862, Colonel, May 5, 1863.
*Wounded at Frayser’s Farm, Second Battle of Bull Run.
Harrison, James E. Brigadier General
rank: December 22, 1864
nom: December 29, 1864
conf: January 6, 1865
*Brother of Thomas Harrison. *Two-term Mississippi senator.
*Member of Texas secession convention. *1st Texas Infantry, Major, 1861.
*15th Texas Infantry: Lt. Colonel, May 1862, Colonel, CSA, 1864.
Harrison, Thomas
“Ironsides”
Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: January 14, 1865
nom: February 6, 1865
conf: February 18, 1865
*Brother of James E. Harrison. *Mexican–American War. *Texas legislator.
*8th Texas Cavalry, Captain, May 18, 1861, Major, September 7, 1861, Lt. Colonel, 1862,
Colonel, November 18, 1862. *Wounded at Monroe’s Crossroads.
Hatton, Robert Hopkins Colonel
Brigadier General
not confirmed: died
*Tennessee legislator, 1855–1857. *U.S. Representative, 1859–1861.
*17th Tennessee Infantry, Captain, May 7, 1861, Colonel, May 26, 1861.
*Killed May 31, 1862 at Fair Oaks Station during Seven Pines, aged 35.
Hawes, James Morrison Brigadier General
rank: March 5, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
re-conf: March 18, 1862
*USMA, 1845. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 9, 1861.
*2nd Kentucky Cavalry, Colonel, June 26, 1861.*Relieved after Shiloh at own request.
Commanded a brigade in Vicksburg campaign. *In charge of Galveston fortifications, 1864.
Hawthorn, Alexander T. Brigadier General
rank: February 18, 1864
nom: February 23, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *6th Arkansas Infantry: Lt. Colonel, June 7, 1861, Colonel, October 15, 1861.
Hays, Harry T. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 25, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *7th Louisiana Infantry, Colonel, June 5, 1861. *Wounded at Port Republic.
*Severely wounded at Spotsylvania. *Upon recovery assigned to Trans–Mississippi.
*Assigned to duty as major general by E. Kirby Smith in May 1865, not officially promoted.
Hébert, Louis Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 26, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*USMA, 1845. *First cousin of Paul Octave Hebert. *Resigned from U.S. Army in 1845.
*Militia officer. *Louisiana State senator. *1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, Colonel, February 5, 1861.
*3rd Louisiana Infantry, Colonel, May 11, 1861. *Wounded and captured at Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862.
*Exchanged, March 20, 1862. *Captured at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.
*Exchanged October 13, 1863. *In charge of artillery at Fort Fisher.
Hébert, Paul Octave Brigadier General
nom: August 16, 1861
rank, conf: August 17, 1861
re-nom: February 10, 1864
re-conf: June 6, 1864
*USMA, 1836. *First cousin of Louis Hebert. *First in class at USMA.
*Resigned from U.S. Army in 1845. *Mexican–American War.
*Governor of Louisiana, January 22, 1853–January 30, 1856. *1st Louisiana Artillery: Colonel, February 5, 1861.
*Department of Texas, August 14, 1861–May 26, 1862. *Only significant battle was Milliken’s Bend.
Helm, Benjamin Hardin Brigadier General
rank, nom: March 14, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*Kentucky Military Institute. *Resigned as 2nd lieutenant, U.S. Army, October 9, 1852.
*Married Mary Todd Lincoln’s half sister. *Kentucky legislator.
*Commonwealth attorney. *Declined Union Major, Paymaster commission.
*1st Kentucky Cavalry: Colonel, October 5, 1861. *Horse fell on him at Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862.
*Mortally wounded at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863; died the following day, aged 32.
Heth, Henry Brigadier General
rank, conf: January 6, 1862
nom: January 9, 1862
Major General
rank: May 24. 1863
nom: May 23, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1847. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 25, 1861. *Lt. Colonel, acting Quartermaster,
Provisional Army of Virginia, April 29, 1861.
*45th Virginia Infantry Regiment: Lt. Colonel, May 31, 1861, Colonel, June 17, 1861.
*Wounded at Chancellorsville. *Heth’s troop movement, without orders, started Battle of Gettysburg.
*Severely wounded, skull fracture, at Gettysburg but was in all further battles of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Said to be only general addressed by first name by Robert E. Lee.
Higgins, Edward Brigadier General
rank: October 29, 1863
nom: November 2, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Midshipman in the Navy from age 14 and at sea for most of 18 years. *1st Louisiana Artillery, Captain, April 12, 1861.
*Aide to Twiggs when he commanded at New Orleans, from June 12, 1861.
*21st Louisiana Infantry: Lt. Colonel, February 13, 1862. *Captured at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, April 28, 1862.
*Exchanged October 16, 1862. *As colonel, commanded river batteries at Vicksburg.
*Captured and exchanged, October 13, 1863. *Harbor defenses at Mobile; relieved at some time before February 1865.
Hill, Ambrose Powell Brigadier General
rank, conf: February 26, 1862
nom: February 24, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: May 26, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
Lieutenant General
rank: May 24, 1863
nom: May 23, 1863
conf: January 15, 1864
*USMA, 1847. *Mexican–American War. *Seminole Wars.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, March 1, 1861.
*13th Virginia Infantry Regiment: Colonel, May 22, 1861.
*Timely reinforced Lee at Antietam. *Wounded at Chancellorsville.
*In field command at first day at Gettysburg, although sick at start of battle.
*Corps had severe casualties at Bristoe Station.
*Killed by Union straggler during Confederate withdrawal at Petersburg, April 2, 1865, aged 39.
Hill, Benjamin J. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: November 30, 1864
conf: December 1, 1864
*Tennessee state senator. *5th Regiment, Provisional Army of Tennessee, which became 35th Tennessee Infantry:
Captain, June 1861, Colonel, August 30, 1862. *Wounded at Richmond, Kentucky.
*Provost marshal of Army of Tennessee in late 1863 through Atlanta campaign.
*Brigade command under Forrest in campaign against Wilson.
Hill, Daniel Harvey Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 10, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, conf: March 26, 1862
nom: March 25, 1862
Lieutenant General (acted as)
July 11, 1863–October 15, 1863
*USMA, 1842. *Mexican–American War veteran.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and Brevet Major, U.S. Army, February 28, 1849.
*1st North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, May 19, 1861.
*In command at Big Bethel (wounded). *Appointed lieutenant general on July 11, 1863, but
due to his criticism of Braxton Bragg, Davis refused to nominate Hill for confirmation at that grade.
*Brief service during Siege of Petersburg, then no service until January 21, 1865.
*Commanded division at Bentonville.
Hindman, Thomas Carmichael Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 28, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: April 14, 1862
nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Mississippi State legislator.
*U.S. House of Representatives from Arkansas, March 4, 1859–March 3, 1861.
*2d Arkansas Infantry: Colonel, June 21, 1861. *Commanded Trans–Mississippi before Holmes.
*Wounded at Chickamauga. *Incapacitated by wounds from Battle of Atlanta.
Hodge, George B.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not (nominations rejected).
Hogg, Joseph L. Brigadier General
nom: February 12, 1862
conf: February 13, 1862
rank: February 14, 1862
*Congress of Republic of Texas. *Mexican–American War. *Texas State senator.
*Member of Texas secession convention.
*Major General, Texas Militia, 1861. *Colonel, CSA, Texas Infantry, February 1, 1861.
*Organized troops in Texas. *Ordered to Corinth, Mississippi after Shiloh.
*Fell ill of dysentery soon after arriving at Beauregard’s camp at Corinth and died May 16, 1862, aged 55.
Hoke, Robert F. Brigadier General
rank: January 17, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
Major General
rank: April 20, 1864
nom: April 23, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*Kentucky Military Institute. *1st North Carolina Infantry, Private.
*Fought at Big Bethel as 2nd lieutenant, April 22, 1861, 1st North Carolina Volunteers.
*Mustered out November 14, 1861.
*33rd North Carolina Infantry: Major, November 27, 1861, Lt. Colonel, March 1862.
*Wounded at Fredericksburg. *Severely wounded at Chancellorsville.
*Captured Union garrison at Plymouth, North Carolina.
Holmes, Theophilus Hunter
“Granny”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 5, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Lieutenant General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 13, 1862
*USMA, 1829. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, April 22, 1861.
*Colonel, North Carolina Coastal Defenses, April 22, 1861.
*Brigadier General, North Carolina Militia, May 27, 1861. *After First Bull Run and Seven Days’ Battles,
commanded Trans–Mississippi Department until relieved by E. Kirby Smith.
Holtzclaw, James T. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: July 7, 1864
nom: July 8, 1864
conf: February 21, 1865
*Appointed to USMA but did not enter. *Lieutenant of a militia company.
*18th Alabama Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, May 1861, Major, August 1861, Lt. Colonel, December 23, 1861,
Colonel, May 19, 1862.
*Shot through the lung at Shiloh, recovered in 90 days.
*Colonel, served at Mobile. *Thrown from horse at Chickamauga.
*Wounded at Franklin, in command of rear guard during part of retreat.
Hood, John Bell
“Sam”, “Wooden Head”
Brigadier General
rank: March 3, 1862; nom:
March 5, 1862; conf: March 6, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
Lieutenant General
rank: September 20, 1863
nom: February 1, 1864;
conf: February 4, 1864
General (temporary)
July 18, 1864–January 23, 1865
*USMA, 1853. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 16, 1861.
*4th Texas Infantry, Colonel, September 30, 1861.
*Lost arm at Gettysburg. *Lost leg at Chickamauga.
*Promoted to full general with temporary rank on July 18, 1864.
*Lost several battles in Atlanta Campaign after he relieved Joseph E. Johnston in July 1864.
*Abandoned Atlanta and began Franklin–Nashville Campaign.
*Army of Tennessee was shattered at Franklin and Nashville.
*Relieved of command in January 1865 and reverted to permanent rank of lieutenant general.
*Surrendered himself at Natchez, Mississippi, paroled, May 31, 1865.
*Died, along with wife and one child, August 30, 1879 of yellow fever
at New Orleans, Louisiana, aged 48.
Huger, Benjamin Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1825. *Chief of ordnance for Winfield Scott in Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, April 22, 1861, after fall of Fort Sumter.
*Brigadier general, Virginia Militia and Provisional Army of Virginia.
*In command at Norfolk, Virginia from May 23, 1861.
*Dismantled fortifications, set fire to Navy Yard and scuttled Merrimac before abandoning Norfolk in May 1862.
*Censured for actions in command of division at Seven Pines.*Assigned as inspector of artillery and ordnance.
*Assigned to Trans–Mississippi Department for most of remainder of war.
Humes, William Y.C. Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 17, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*VMI, 1851. *CSA 1st Lieutenant, May 13, 1861, Captain, June 1861, of artillery.
*Captured at Island No. 10, April 7, 1862.
*Exchanged September 1862. *Chief of artillery for Wheeler from March 1863.
*Wounded at Farmington, Tennessee, October 7, 1863. *Wounded at Monroe Crossroads, March 10, 1865.
*In division command in last months of the war but no record of promotion to major general.
Humphreys, Benjamin Grubb Brigadier General
rank: August 12, 1863
nom: August 14, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Dismissed from USMA after Christmas Eve 1826 cadet riot. *Mississippi legislator.
*Initially opposed secession.
*21st Mississippi Infantry: Captain, May 18, 1861, Colonel, September 11, 1861.
*Wounded at Berryville, Virginia, September 1864.
Imboden, John Daniel Brigadier General (New units)
rank: January 28, 1863
nom: April 11, 1863
conf: April 13, 1863
*Virginia legislator for two terms. *Captain of Staunton Artillery at capture of Harper’s Ferry. *Perforated ear drum, wounded at First Bull Run.
*Artillery, Valley District, March 1862. *Organized 1st Virginia Partisan Rangers (62nd Virginia Mounted Infantry), Colonel, September 9, 1862.
*Raided northwestern Virginia, severed Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, captured thousands of cattle and horses.
*Helped saved trains of Army of Northern Virginia at Williamsport after Gettysburg. *Captured Union garrison at Charlestown, West Virginia.
*Ill from typhoid fever in Fall 1864, remainder of war on prison duty at Aiken, South Carolina and other camps.
Jackson, Alfred E. Brigadier General
rank: February 9, 1863
nom: March 5, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*Major, quartermaster, staff of Zollicoffer, Paymaster, September 11, 1861.
*Original brigadier general rank, nomination October 29, 1862, cancelled April 22, 1863.
*Brigade commander in East Tennessee. *Captured 100th Ohio Infantry at Telford’s Station, Tennessee, September 1863.
*Special pardon from Andrew Johnson for kindnesses shown to his family.
Jackson, Henry R. Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 4, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
resigned December 2, 1861
rank, nom: September 21, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Mexican–American War, colonel. *Superior court judge, U.S. minister to Austria.
*Prosecuted captain and owners of slave ship Wanderer in 1859. *Member of Georgia secession convention.
*Confederate judge, resigned August 1861. *Served with Robert E. Lee in West Virginia.
*Resigned, became major general of Georgia state troops; without a command after division taken into CSA under Conscript Act.
*Recommissioned CSA brigadier general, September 21, 1863. *Captured at Nashville.
Jackson, John K. Brigadier General
nom: January 10, 1862
rank, conf: January 14, 1862
re-conf: February 17, 1864
*Georgia militia, Captain; Lt. Colonel, 1861. *5th Georgia Infantry: Lt. Colonel, April 1861, Colonel, May 1861.
*Commanded District of Florida after July 1, 1864. *Defense of Savannah.
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan
“Stonewall”, “Jack”,
“Old Jack”, “Bluelight”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Lieutenant General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
*USMA, 1846. Mexican–American War. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and Brevet Major, U.S. Army, February 29, 1852.
*Professor at VMI, 1852–1861. *Colonel, Virginia militia. *At Battle of First Bull Run, named “Stonewall” by Barnard Bee.
*Conducted Jackson’s Valley Campaign, Spring 1862, tied up 3 Union armies. *Moved to Richmond for Seven Days Battles.
*Turning movement helped Confederates win at Second Bull Run. *Captured 12,000-man Union garrison at Harper’s Ferry.
*Helped save Confederate Army at Antietam. *Commanded Confederate right wing at Fredericksburg.
*Famous flank march routed Union Army at Chancellorsville.
*Mistakenly mortally wounded by own men returning from night reconnaissance after first day of battle, May 2, 1863.
*Died at Guinea’s Station, Virginia May 10, 1863 from pneumonia after amputation of left arm, aged 39.
Jackson, William Hicks “Red” Brigadier General
rank: December 29, 1862
nom: January 9, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1856. *Resigned as 2nd lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 16, 1861. *Captain of Tennessee Heavy Artillery, July 1861.
*Wounded at Belmont. *1st (later 7th) Tennessee Cavalry, Colonel, April 1, 1862.
*In charge of cavalry corps of Army of Mississippi during Atlanta campaign.
*In command of all Tennessee cavalry in Forrest’s department, February 1865. *Led division but not promoted to major general.
Jackson, William Lowther Brigadier General
rank: December 19, 1864
nom: December 29, 1864
conf: January 12, 1865
*Second cousin of Stonewall Jackson. *Commonwealth attorney, judge, Virginia legislator, lieutenant governor of Virginia.
*31st Virginia Infantry: Enlisted as Private; Lt. Colonel, June 1861; Colonel, July 1861. *West Virginia campaign.
*On Stonewall Jackson’s staff from June 4, 1862 until April 14, 1863 when he recruited 19th Virginia Cavalry: Colonel, April 17, 1863.
*Active in West Virginia and Valley Campaigns of 1864.
Jenkins, Albert Gallatin Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 5, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Attended VMI. *U.S. Representative, 1857–1861. *8th Virginia Cavalry: Captain, May 15, 1861, Lt. Colonel, September 24, 1861,
Colonel, November 1861. *Wounded at Scarey Creek, Virginia, July 16, 1861. *Fell from horse, Piggot’s Mill, West Virginia, August 25, 1861.
*Elected to First Regular Confederate Congress, also promoted brigadier general, August 5, 1862; resigned from Congress.
*Severely wounded at Gettysburg. *Returned to mountain command in late 1863.
*Opposed Crook at Cloyd’s Mountain near Dublin, Virginia on May 9, 1864.
*Wounded, captured, arm amputated, died 12 days later, May 21, 1864, at Dublin, West Virginia, aged 33.
Jenkins, Micah Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 22. 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*South Carolina Military Academy, 1854, first in class.
*5th South Carolina Infantry: Colonel. *At First Bull Run. *Wounded at Fair Oaks, Frayser’s Farm.
*Severely wounded at Second Bull Run.
*On second day, near spot of Stonewall Jackson mortal wounding, Lt. Gen. Longstreet and Jenkins were hit by friendly fire.
*Longstreet recovered; Jenkins died a few hours later, May 6, 1864, aged 28.
Johnson, Adam Rankin
“Stovepipe”
  See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a brigadier general; Eicher does not.
Johnson, Bradley Tyler Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: June 28, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*State’s attorney, chairman of Maryland Democratic Party committee. *Captain CSA Maryland Volunteers, May 22, 1861.
*Helped recruit 1st Maryland (Confederate) Infantry, Major June 17, 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 21, 1861, Colonel, March 18, 1862.
*Wounded at Antietam. *Assigned to important field duties but not promoted to brigadier general until June 28, 1864.
*Executed Jubal Early’s orders to McCausland to burn Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
Johnson, Bushrod Rust Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
January 24, 1862
re-conf: February 17, 1864
Major General
rank: May 21, 1865
nom: May 23, 1864
conf: May 26, 1864
*USMA, 1840. *Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War.
*Forced to resign as 1st lieutenant, U.S. Army, October 22, 1847, for selling contraband goods.
*Tennessee militia colonel of engineers, June 28, 1861.
*Escaped after being captured at Fort Donelson. *Severely wounded, concussion, at Shiloh.
*Division shattered at Sayler’s Creek.
Johnson, Edward
“Old Allegheny”,
“Clubby”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: December 13, 1861
conf: December 24, 1861
Major General
rank: February 28, 1863
nom: March 5, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1840. *Seminole Wars. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 10, 1861.
*12th Georgia Infantry, Colonel, July 2, 1861. *Wounded during Jackson’s Valley campaign.
*Commanded Jackson’s former division at Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, where captured with most of command.
*Exchanged August 3, 1864. *Captured at the battle of Nashville. *Released July 22, 1865.
Johnston, Albert Sidney General (ACSA)
rank: May 30, 1861
nom, conf: August 31, 1861
*USMA, 1826. *Fought in Black Hawk War. *Resigned from U.S. Army in 1834.
*Fought in Texas War of Independence as a private, rose to brigadier general. *Secretary of War of Republic of Texas, 1838–1840.
*Colonel of Texas volunteers in Mexican–American War. *Reappointed to U.S. Army in 1849, served on Texas frontier and in Utah War.
*Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General, U.S. Army. *Commanded Department of Utah, 1858–1869, then Department of the Pacific.
*Resigned as Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General, U.S. Army, May 3, 1861.
*In command of all Confederate forces west of Allegheny Mountains. *Killed on the first day at Shiloh, April 6, 1862, aged 59.
Johnston, George Doherty Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: July 26, 1864
conf: February 21, 1865
*Marion, Alabama Mayor 1856. *Alabama legislator, 1857–1858. *4th Alabama Infantry, 2d lieutenant, April 6, 1861.
*25th Alabama Infantry, Major, January 8, 1862, Colonel, September 14, 1863. *Wounded at Stones River.
*At every engagement of Army of Tennessee from Shiloh to Bentonville. *Wounded at Ezra Church during Atlanta campaign.
Johnston, Joseph E. Brigadier General
rank, conf: May 14, 1861
nom: March 15, 1861
General (ACSA)
rank: July 4, 1861
nom, conf: August 31, 1861
*USMA, 1829. *Seminole Wars (wounded). *Mexican–American War (wounded). *Resigned as Quartermaster and Brigadier General,
U.S. Army, April 22, 1861. *Major General, Provisional Army of Virginia. *Brigadier General, ACSA, May 14, 1861, at Harpers Ferry.
*Moved from Harpers Ferry by rail to reinforce Beauregard at First Bull Run. *General, ACSA, July 4, 1861.
*Command of Army of Northern Virginia. *Wounded at Seven Pines, May 1862.
*Replaced by Robert E. Lee. *In command of Department of West in 1863. *Tried to relieve Vicksburg.
*Replaced Braxton Bragg in command of Army of Tennessee after Chattanooga. *In defense of Atlanta.
*Replaced by John Bell Hood, July 17, 1864, because of policy of maneuver and retreat.
*No more active service until appointed by Lee to oppose Sherman in Carolinas Campaign in February–April 1865.
*Battle of Bentonville. *Surrendered at Bennett Place, Durham, North Carolina.
Johnston, Robert D. Brigadier General
rank: September 1, 1863
nom: September 2, 1863
conf: February 16, 1864
*North Carolina Militia, 2nd lieutenant, 1861. *23rd North Carolina Infantry: Captain, July 15, 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 31, 1862.
*Wounded at Seven Pines. *12th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, 1863.
*Wounded at Gettysburg, Spotsylvania. *Died February 1, 1919, Winchester, Virginia, aged 81.
Jones, David Rumph
“Neighbor”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, conf: October 11, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, Brevet Captain and Assistant Adjutant General,
U.S. Army, February 15, 1861. *Major, commissary of subsistence, forces near Charleston, March 6, 1861– May 27, 1861.
*Chief of staff to Beauregard. *First appointment to major general, to rank from March 10, 1862, rejected by Senate, September 24, 1862.
*Commanded Confederate right at Burnside Bridge at Antietam; counterattacked with A.P. Hill.
*Developed heart trouble and died of a heart ailment at Richmond, Virginia, January 15, 1863, aged 37.
Jones, John Marshall
“Rum”
Brigadier General
rank: May 15, 1863
nom: May 16, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1841. *Instructor at West Point during Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 27, 1861.
*Captain in Confederate Army at start of war. *Lt. colonel and Assistant Adjutant General, September 4, 1861.
*Seriously wounded at Gettysburg and Payne’s Farm in November 1863.
*Killed at the Wilderness, May 5, 1864, aged 43.
Jones, John R.   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
*Warner includes him on list of generals despite lack of confirmation; Eicher does not.
Jones, Samuel Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: March 10, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
(March 18, 1862)
*USMA, 1841 *West Point instructor during Mexican–American War and for five more years.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 27, 1861.
*Lt. Colonel, Virginia Provisional Army, May 9, 1861. *Captain of 1st Artillery Regiment and assistant to judge advocate.
*Chief of artillery for Beauregard at First Bull Run. *Department or division commands.
Jones, William E.
“Grumble”
Brigadier General
rank: September 19, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
*USMA, 1848. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 1857. *Virginia militia company captain.
*1st Virginia Cavalry, Major, May 1861. *1st, then 7th, Virginia Cavalry, Colonel, September 1862.
*Wounded at Orange County Courthouse. *Sent to Department of Southwest Virginia and East Tennessee after Brandy Station.
*Ordered to intercept David Hunter’s raid in Shenandoah Valley. *Killed at Piedmont, June 5, 1864, aged 40.
Kelly, John Herbert Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 17, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Entered USMA in 1857 but resigned on December 29, 1860.
*Commissioned 2d lieutenant of artillery in Confederate Regular Army.
*14th Arkansas Infantry, Major, September 23, 1861. *Commanded 9th Arkansas Battalion at Shiloh.
*8th Arkansas Infantry, Colonel, May 3, 1862. *Led brigade at Chickamauga.
*Youngest Confederate general officer on date of appointment. *Assigned a division in Wheeler’s corps.
*During Atlanta campaign raid, mortally wounded in an action at Franklin, Tennessee, September 2, 1864.
*Left with William H. Harrison family; died a few days later, probably September 4, 1864, aged 24.
Kemper, James Lawson Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 3, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General
rank, nom:
September 19, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Mexican–American War. *Five terms in Virginia House of Delegates; Speaker of the House.
*7th Virginia Infantry, Colonel. *Severely wounded in Pickett’s Charge.
*Captured, exchanged for Charles K. Graham, September 19, 1863.
*Commanded Virginia reserve forces after major general promotion.
Kennedy, John Doby Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: December 22, 1864
nom: January 7, 1865
conf: February 8, 1865
*2nd South Carolina Infantry, Private, April 1861, Captain, May 1861, Colonel, January 1862.
*Wounded at First Bull Run, four other times.
*South Carolina Governor Magrath asked that brigade be sent to help Johnston oppose Sherman.
Kershaw, Joseph Brevard Brigadier General
nom: February 1, 1862
rank, conf: February 13, 1862
re-conf: February 17, 1864
Major General
rank: May 18, 1864
nom: June 1, 1864
conf: June 2, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *Two-term South Carolina legislator. *Colonel, South Carolina Militia.
*2nd South Carolina Infantry: Colonel, May 22, 1861.
*Captured at Sayler’s Creek, April 6, 1865.
Lane, James H.
“Little General”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 23, 1863
*VMI, 1854. *1st North Carolina Volunteers, Major, May 11, 1861, Lt. Colonel, September 1, 1861.
*At Battle of Big Bethel. *Reorganized; 28th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, September 15, 1861. *Wounded three times.
*Brigade fought during first day at Gettysburg and in Pickett’s Charge.
Lane, Walter P. Brigadier General
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Born February 18, 1817, County Cork, Ireland. *Fought at San Jacinto. *Mexican–American War.
*3rd Texas Cavalry, Lt. Colonel, July 2, 1861. *South Kansas and Texas Infantry, August 1861.
*Severely wounded at Mansfield. *1st Texas Partisan Rangers, Colonel, 1864. *Cavalry brigade commander, March 1864–May 26, 1865.
Law, Evander M. Brigadier General
nom: September 26, 1862
rank, conf: October 3, 1862
*South Carolina Military Academy, 1856. *4th Alabama Infantry, Captain, April 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 2, 1861, Colonel, October 28, 1861.
*Severely wounded at First Bull Run. *Wounded at Second Bull Run. *Led Hood’s division after Hood wounded at Chickamauga.
*Charged with insubordination by Longstreet, November 2, 1863, additional charges April 8, 1864.
*Charges dropped by Samuel Cooper, April 18, 1864. *Wounded at Cold Harbor, fractured skull and eye injury.
*Relieved from Army of Northern Virginia at own request. *Commanded cavalry force under Joseph E. Johnston in the Carolinas.
*New York Times obituary, other histories state promotion to major general, March 20, 1865.
*Major general promotion never confirmed by Confederate Senate which last met March 18, 1865.
*Died October 31, 1920, Bartow, Florida, aged 84.
Lawton, Alexander R. Brigadier General
rank, nom: April 13, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
re-conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1839. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, December 31, 1840 to enter Harvard Law School.
*Served in both houses of Georgia legislature. *1st Georgia Militia, Colonel, January 1861.
*Seized Fort Pulaski, April 13, 1861. *1st Georgia Infantry, Colonel, May 27, 1861.
*Badly wounded at Antietam. *Quartermaster department from fall 1863 until end of war.
Leadbetter, Danville Brigadier General
rank: February 27, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*Born August 26, 1811, Leeds, Maine. *USMA, 1836. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, at Mobile, Alabama, December 31, 1857.
*Chief engineer of Alabama. *Mainly an engineer officer in Confederate Army. *Supervised building defenses at Mobile, Chattanooga, Knoxville.
*E. P. Alexander criticized Leadbetter’s work at Knoxville. *Chief engineer for Joseph Johnston.
Lee, Edwin Gray
“Ned”
Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: September 20, 1864
nom: September 23, 1864
conf: February 3, 1865
reconsidered; rejected
February 24, 28, 1865
March 1, 1865
*Son-in-law of William N. Pendleton. *Second cousin of Robert E. Lee. *Aide to Stonewall Jackson at Harper’s Ferry, 1861.
*2nd Virginia Infantry, 2nd Lieutenant, May 1861. *33rd Virginia Infantry, Major, April 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 25, 1862, Colonel, August 28, 1862.
*Captured at Shepherdstown, September 1862. *Exchanged December 1862. *Resigned due to ill health, December 1862.
*Recommissioned colonel in 1863, duty at Richmond, Virginia, including judge advocate.
*In command at Staunton, Virginia for defense of Shenandoah Valley, May 17, 1864.
*Given six-month leave of absence for health, November 28, 1864, but apparently moved to Canada as secret agent.
*Warner, Eicher list as a general despite recall.
*Ran blockade with wife just before end of war to Montreal, Canada.
*Died from “disease of the lungs,” August 24, 1870, Yellow Springs, Virginia, aged 34.
Lee, Fitzhugh Brigadier General
rank: July 24, 1862
nom: July 25, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General
rank” August 3, 1863
nom: September 3, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*USMA, 1856. *Wounded fighting Indians on the frontier, May 13, 1859. *Nephew of Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee.
*Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 21, 1861. *Assistant Adjutant General, July 30, 1861–August 1861.
*Staff of Joseph E. Johnston at First Bull Run. *1st Virginia Cavalry, Lt. Colonel, August 1861, Colonel, March 1862.
*After Wade Hampton ordered to North Carolina in January 1865, Lee commanded rest of Cavalry Corps of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Wounded twice. *U.S. Consul General to Havana, Cuba, 1896–1898.
*Major General of U.S. Volunteers in the Spanish–American War. *Retired as Brigadier General, U.S. Army, 1901.
Lee, George Washington Custis Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 25, 1863
local volunteers; not acted on
Major General
rank, nom: October 20, 1864
re-nom: January 18, 1865
conf: February 24, 1865
*Eldest son of Robert E. Lee. *USMA, 1854. *First in class at USMA, engineer officer. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 2, 1861.
*Captain of engineers, constructed Richmond, Virginia defenses.
*Commissary of subsistence, Army of the Northwest, August 1, 1861–August 31, 1861.
*Served on staff of Jefferson Davis with the rank of colonel, August 31, 1861–June 25, 1863.
*Commanded Richmond Local Defense Forces and Local Defenses, June 25, 1863–March 1865.
*No active field service until organized clerks and mechanics to defend Richmond near end of war.

Captured at the Battle of Sailors Creek, Virginia, April 6, 1865, by David Dunnels White of the 37th Massachusetts Regiment Infantry

Lee, Robert E. Brigadier General (ACSA)
rank, conf: May 14, 1861
nom: May 15, 1861
General (ACSA)
rank: June 14, 1861
nom, conf: August 31, 1861
*Son of Henry Lee III (Light-Horse Harry Lee). *USMA, 1829; Second in class.
*Married Mary Ann Randolph Custis, great grand–daughter of Martha Washington, June 30, 1831.
*Mexican–American War, fought with Major General Winfield Scott. *Supervised construction or improvement of Forts Pulaski, Monroe,
Hamilton and Carroll. *Superintendent of USMA, 1855–1857. *2nd U.S. Cavalry, Lt. Colonel, 1857–1861.
*Led U.S. Marine detachment against John Brown at Harper’s Ferry, October 1859. *Resigned as Colonel, U.S. Army, April 20, 1861.
*Commander of Virginia land and naval forces. *Major general and commander in chief of Provisional Army of Virginia, April 22, 1861–June 8, 1861.
*Led West Virginia Campaign, September 21, 1861–November 5, 1861.
*Examined South Atlantic seaboard defense, November 5, 1861–March 4, 1862.
*Military adviser to Jefferson Davis, March 13, 1862–May 31, 1862. *Command of Army of Northern Virginia, June 1, 1862–April 9, 1865.
*Given command of all Confederate armies, January 23, 1865. *Opposed guerrilla warfare after surrender.
*President of Washington College, later Washington and Lee University.
*Died October 12, 1870, Lexington, Virginia, aged 63.
Lee, Stephen Dill Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 6, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General
rank, nom: August 3, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
Lt. General
rank, nom: June 23, 1864
cancelled: February 23, 1865
re-nom: March 11, 1865
conf: March 16, 1865
*USMA, 1854. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and regimental quartermaster, U.S. Army, February 20, 1861.
*Assistant Adjutant General, Assistant Inspector General, Charleston forces, March 6, 1861–April 11, 1861.
*Captain and aide to Beauregard, April 11, 1861– June 1861.
*4th Virginia Cavalry, Captain June 1861, Major, November 1861, Lt. Colonel, March 1862. Colonel, July 9, 1862.
*Served in artillery through Antietam. *Assigned to Pemberton at Vicksburg. *Captured July 4, 1863. *Exchanged October 13, 1863.
*Command of cavalry in Department of Mississippi, Alabama, West Tennessee and East Louisiana.
*Youngest Confederate lieutenant general.
*Assumed command of Hood’s old corps when Hood succeeded Johnston as commander of Army of Tennessee.
*Wounded at Spring Hill, Tennessee.
Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh
“Rooney”
Brigadier General
rank: September 15, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: April 23, 1864
conf: June 9, 1864
*Second oldest son of Robert E. Lee. Commissioned into U.S. Army for two years, resigned as 2nd lieutenant, May 31, 1857.
*Captain, Virginia Provisional Army, May 10, 1861. *9th Virginia Cavalry: Major, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, January 18, 1862, Colonel, April 28, 1862.
*Participated in most campaigns of Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia.
*Unhorsed and run over, Boonsboro, Maryland, September 15, 1862.
*Severely wounded at Brandy Station, June 1863. *Captured while recovering, at Hickory Hill, Virginia, June 26, 1863.
*Exchanged February 25, 1864 for Neal Dow.
Leventhorpe, Collett Brigadier General (special)
rank: February 3, 1865
nom: February 14, 1865
conf: February 18, 1865
declined: March 6, 1865
*Captain in British Army. *Moved to North Carolina; married into prominent family. *34th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, October 25, 1861.
*11th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 2, 1862. *Badly wounded at Gettysburg, captured. *Exchanged March 10, 1864.
*Then, appointed brigadier general of North Carolina state forces and operated on the Roanoke River and Weldon Railroad until the end of the war.
*For unknown reasons, declined appointment as brigadier general, CSA, on March 6, 1865; remained with state troops collecting stragglers.
*Warner, Eicher list as a general.
Lewis, Joseph Horace Brigadier General
rank: September 30, 1863
nom: October 1, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Three-term Kentucky legislator. *Colonel, Kentucky Militia. *6th Kentucky Infantry, Colonel, November 1, 1861.
*Command of Orphan Brigade after death of Ben Hardin Helm.
*After fall of Atlanta, brigade was mounted, attached to Wheeler’s cavalry corps.
*Opposed Sherman’s March to the Sea, Carolinas campaign. *Surrendered as part of Jefferson Davis’s escort
Lewis, William Gaston Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom, conf: June 2, 1864
*Served in Bethel Regiment, 1st North Carolina Infantry, from April 21, 1861.
*33rd North Carolina Infantry, Major, January 17, 1862. *43rd North Carolina Infantry, Lt. Colonel, April 25, 1862, Colonel, April 22, 1863.
*Wounded at Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia, July 20, 1864. *Wounded and captured at Farmville, April 7, 1865.
Liddell, St. John Richardson Brigadier General
rank: July 12, 1862
nom: July 17, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*Killed two men in duels, 1852. *Colonel, aide for Hardee, September 15, 1861– January 1862.
*Confidential courier for Albert Sidney Johnston, January 1862– April 6, 1862.
*Aide to Beauregard, April 6, 1862–June 14, 1862.
Lilley, Robert Doak Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom, conf: June 2, 1864
*25th Virginia Infantry, Captain, May 25, 1861, Major, January 28, 1863, Lt. Colonel, August 20, 1863. *Wounded 3 times.
*Captured near Winchester, Virginia when wounded in July 1864 reconnaissance. *Arm amputated, released July 24, 1864.
*In charge of reserve units in Shenandoah Valley thereafter.
Little, Lewis Henry Brigadier General
nom: April 5, 1862
rank, conf: April 16, 1862
*Commissioned directly into U.S. Army, 1839. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 7, 1861.
*Major of artillery, May 1861. *Colonel and Assistant Adjutant General on staff of Sterling Price, August 1861.
*Missouri State Guard, May 18, 1861–January 23, 1862, Colonel, Assistant Adjutant General.
*While talking with Price, Louis Hebert and Whitfield at Iuka, September 19, 1862, a ball struck Little in the forehead, killing him instantly.
Logan, Thomas Muldrup Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: February 15, 1865
nom: February 22, 1865
conf: February 23, 1865
*Hampton’s Legion, 1st Lieutenant, May 1861, Captain, July 1861, Major, September 17, 1862,
Lt. Colonel, December 1862, Colonel, May 19, 1864.
*Wounded at Gaines Mill and at Riddell’s Shop, Virginia, June 13, 1864.
*Commanded brigade in South Carolina with Wade Hampton III.
Lomax, Lunsford L. Brigadier General
rank: July 23, 1863
nom: July 30, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
Major General (temporary)
rank, nom: August 10, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*USMA, 1856. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 25, 1861.
*Staff officer until 1863. *Inspector General of Army of West Tennessee.
*11th Virginia Cavalry, Colonel, February 8, 1863.
*Commanded cavalry in Valley Campaign of 1864, including Winchester, Cedar Creek.
Long, Armistead L. Brigadier General (artillery)
rank, nom: September 21, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1850. *Resigned as aide to U.S. Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, Sr., and as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, June 10, 1861.
*Major of artillery, July 1861, in Confederate service, then staff officer, April 21, 1862.
*Became military secretary to Robert E. Lee when Lee took command of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Assigned to command artillery of 2nd Corps, September 23, 1863–April 9, 1865.
Longstreet, James
“Pete”, “Old Pete”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Lt. General
rank: October 9, 1862
nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
*USMA, 1842. *Indian Wars. *Mexican–American War (wounded).
*Resigned as Major and Paymaster, U.S. Army, June 1, 1861.
*Fought at First Bull Run. *Occupied Marye’s Heights at Fredericksburg. *Commanded right wing at Gettysburg.
*Served at Chickamauga, Knoxville.
*At the Wilderness, severely wounded by his own men on return from a night scout after the first day.
*Last of Confederate full and permanent lieutenant generals to die, January 2, 1904, Gainesville, Georgia, aged 83.
Loring, William Wing
“Blizzards”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 20, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: February 15, 1862
conf: February 17, 1862
*Seminole Wars. *Florida state legislator. *Lost arm in Mexican–American War.
*Stayed in regular army, youngest U.S. Army colonel at time of Civil War. *Resigned as Colonel, U.S. Army, May 13, 1861.
*Relieved of duty by Stonewall Jackson because of arguments during Romney Expedition.
*In command in Southwest Virginia. *Then in Mississippi, cut off from Vicksburg at Baker’s Creek and escaped capture.
*Wounded at Ezra Church, Georgia, July 28, 1864.
Lovell, Mansfield Major General
rank, nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1842. *Mexican–American War (wounded twice). Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and Brevet Captain, U.S. Army, December 18, 1854.
*Deputy street commissioner in New York City. *Not appointed as brigadier general; immediate major general appointment.
*Assigned to New Orleans, but had to evacuate city due to attack by superior Union forces. *At Second Battle of Corinth.
*No further assignments despite requests by Joseph E. Johnston and Hood.
*Deputy commander in chief of Georgia militia, May 1864–September 1864. *Volunteer aide to Johnston.
Lowrey, Mark Perrin Brigadier General
rank: October 4, 1863
nom: October 6, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Son of Irish immigrants. *Mexican–American War.
*Commanded 4th Mississippi State Troops, a 60-day regiment, then Colonel 32nd Mississippi Infantry in 1862.
Lowry, Robert Brigadier General
rank: February 4, 1865
nom: February 8, 1865
conf: February 13, 1865
*Mississippi legislator. *6th Mississippi Infantry: Private, May 1861, Major, August 1861, Colonel, May 23, 1862. *Twice wounded at Shiloh.
*Assistant Adjutant General, November 5, 1863–July 1864.
*Promoted to brigadier general after death of John Adams at Franklin.
Mackall, William W. Brigadier General
rank: February 27, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*USMA, 1837. *Severely wounded in Seminole War. Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as Major and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Army, July 3, 1861. *Lt. Colonel, Assistant Adjutant General,
staff of Albert Sidney Johnston, September 9, 1861. *Captured at Island No. 10, April 7, 1862. *Exchanged August 15, 1862.
*Chief of staff to Bragg, April 1863. *Relieved at own request after Chickamauga. *Chief of staff to Joseph E. Johnston.
*Declined to serve under Hood. *Assigned to Macon, Georgia, South Georgia forces, last two months of war.
MacRae, William Brigadier General (special)
rank: November 4, 1864
nom: November 5, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*15th North Carolina Infantry: Private, May 1861, Captain, June 11, 1861, Lt. Colonel May 2, 1862, Colonel, February 27, 1863.
*Often with Army of Northern Virginia.
Magruder, John Bankhead
“Prince John”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: October 7, 1861
nom: October 7, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1830. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain and Brevet Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, April 20, 1861.
*Colonel, Virginia Provisional Army, May 9, 1861, *With forces at Richmond, May 8, 1861, then Hampton Line.
*Distinguished in Peninsula Campaign, deceived and delayed McClellan.
*Less successful in Seven Days Battles. *Assigned to duty in Texas.
*Defended Galveston and dispersed Union fleet, January 1, 1863.
Mahone, William
“Little Billy”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 16, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
re-conf: February 17, 1864
Major General
rank: July 30, 1864
nom: August 3, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*VMI, 1847. *6th Virginia Infantry: Lt. Colonel, April 20, 1861, Colonel, May 2, 1861.
*Major general for successful defense of Confederate line at the Crater at Petersburg.
Major, James Patrick Brigadier General
rank: July 21, 1863
nom: July 23, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1856. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, March 21, 1861.
*Missouri State Guard: Lt. Colonel, 1861, Colonel 1861–1862.
*Acting chief of artillery for Van Dorn at Vicksburg, 1862. *Wounded at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, June 28, 1863.
Maney, George Earl Brigadier General
rank, nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Tennessee legislator. *11th Tennessee Infantry: Captain, May 1861.
*1st Tennessee Infantry, Colonel, May 8, 1861.
*Temporary command of Cheatham’s division. *Relieved of command, August 31, 1864 when wounded.
*Wounded at Ringgold, Georgia and Jonesboro, Georgia.
Manigault, Arthur Middleton Brigadier General
rank: April 26, 1863
nom: April 27, 1863
conf: April 30, 1863
*Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Captain of militia company, supervised construction of Charleston harbor batteries.
*Assistant Adjutant General, aide to Beauregard during attack on Fort Sumter, April 1861–May 1861.
*10th South Carolina Infantry, Colonel, May 31, 1861. *Wounded at Resaca, Georgia.
*Severe head wound at Franklin, incapacitated.
Marmaduke, John Sappington Brigadier General
rank: November 15, 1862
nom: May 25, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
Major General
rank: March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*USMA, 1857. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 17, 1861. *Colonel, Missouri militia, 1861.
1st Arkansas Battalion: Lt. Colonel, September 19, 1861. *18th Arkansas Infantry (3rd Confederate Infantry),
essentially a state based unit, Colonel, January 28, 1862. *Wounded at Shiloh. *Raided Missouri twice.
*Killed Lucius M. Walker in a duel.
*Original major general appointment to rank from April 30, 1864, not nominated.
*Jefferson Davis nullified E. Kirby Smith’s May 13, 1864 appointment of Marmaduke to command as a brigadier general.
*Captured at Mine Creek, Kansas, October 25, 1864. *Paroled July 24, 1865.
*Although a prisoner of war, appointed, confirmed major general, March 18, 1865, the last Confederate major general appointment.
Marshall, Humphrey Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 30, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1832. *Resigned as Brevet 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 1833. *Mexican–American War.
*U.S. Congressman from Kentucky, March 4, 1849–August 4, 1853; March 4, 1855–March 3, 1859.
*U.S. minister to China, March 4, 1849–1854.
*Minor victory at Princeton, West Virginia. *Resigned as brigadier general, June 16, 1862.
*Reappointed four days later. *Resigned June 17, 1863.
Martin, James Green
“One Wing”
Brigadier General
rank: May 15, 1862
nom: August 11, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*USMA, 1840. *Mexican–American War, lost right arm. *Resigned as Captain and Brevet Major, June 14, 1861.
*Adjutant General of North Carolina state troops, September 27, 1861.
*Major general of militia in North Carolina, September 28, 1861. *Resigned July 25, 1862.
*Reappointed brigadier general August 11, 1862 and confirmed as of first date appointed. *In command of District of North Carolina.
*Fought at Siege of Petersburg. *Health broke, put in command of District of Western North Carolina.
Martin, William T. Brigadier General
rank, nom: December 2, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General
rank: November 10, 1863
nom: November 12, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Captain, Mississippi Cavalry, July 8, 1861. *Jeff Davis Legion, Major, October 24, 1861.
*2nd Mississippi Cavalry: Lt. Colonel, February 13, 1862, Colonel, July 1862.
*Commanded rear third of Jeb Stuart’s cavalry force in ride around McClellan.
*Led a division under Wheeler in Atlanta campaign. *Command of District of Northwest Mississippi at end of war.
Maury, Dabney Herndon
“Little Dab”, “Puss-in-Boots”
Brigadier General
rank: March 12, 1862
nom: March 14, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1846. *Wounded in Mexican–American War.
*Dismissed as 1st Lieutenant, Brevet Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Army, June 25, 1861.
*20th Mississippi Infantry, Lt. Colonel, August 28, 1861. *Colonel and chief of staff to Van Dorn.
*Brief service at Vicksburg, in East Tennessee. *Then command at Mobile, Alabama until end of war.
*Founder of Southern Historical Society in 1868.
Maxey, Samuel Bell Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War.
*Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant and Brevet 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, September 17, 1849, to study law.
*Texas state senator. *9th Texas Infantry, Colonel, May 1861. *Fought in East Tennessee, at Port Hudson, in Red River Campaign.
*Assigned to duty as major general by E. Kirby Smith on April 18, 1864, but not appointed by Jefferson Davis.
McCausland, John
“Tiger John”
Brigadier General
rank: May 18, 1864
nom: May 21, 1864
conf: May 24, 1864
*VMI, 1857. *Virginia Militia, Colonel, May 3, 1861. *36th Virginia Infantry: Colonel, July 16, 1861. *In West Virginia Campaign.
*Escaped with command from Fort Donelson before surrender.
*In 1864, assumed command at Cloyd’s Mountain after Albert Jenkins’s death. *Fought in Valley Campaigns of 1864.
*Burned Chambersburg, Pennsylvania on orders of Jubal Early in retaliation for Union Army
destruction of property in Shenandoah Valley.
*Cut way out of Appomattox before surrender. *Paroled at Charleston, West Virginia.
*Next to last surviving Confederate general. *Died January 22, 1927, near Henderson, West Virginia.
McComb, William Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1865
nom: February 7, 1865
conf: February 13, 1865
*14th Tennessee Infantry: Private, May 1861, 2nd Lieutenant, May 1861, Major, April 26, 1862, Lt. Colonel, August 15, 1862,
Colonel, September 2, 1862. *Wounded at Cold Harbor I, June 27, 1862. *Severely wounded at Antietam, Chancellorsville.
*Died July 21, 1918, near Gordonsville, Virginia, aged 89.
McCown, John P. Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 12, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: March 10, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
re-conf: March 18, 1862
*USMA, 1840. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 17, 1861.
*Tennessee Artillery Corps: Lt. Colonel, May 9, 1861, Colonel, May 17, 1861. *Brigade command, September 7, 1861.
*Temporary command of Army of the West. *Command in East Tennessee.
*Bragg preferred charges against him for disobedience of orders at Stones River. *Served out the war without significant command.
*Defended Catawba River crossing in April 1865 with one artillery piece and 300 men against a division of Union cavalry.
McCulloch, Ben Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
May 11, 1861
*Elder brother of Henry E. McCulloch. *Battle of San Jacinto.
*Wounded in duel with future Confederate Colonel Reuben Ross in 1839.
*Mexican–American War. *Texas militia, Colonel, Major General. *Received Twiggs’s surrender at San Antonio.
*Brigadier general in command in Arkansas. *Killed at Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862, aged 51,
while directing the right wing of the army.
McCulloch, Henry Eustace Brigadier General
rank, nom: March 14, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*Younger brother of Ben McCulloch. *Mexican–American War. *Texas state legislator. *U.S. marshal.
*1st Texas Mounted Riflemen, Colonel, April 15, 1862.
*Served almost entirely within Texas except Vicksburg relief campaign, Milliken’s Bend.
McGowan, Samuel Brigadier General
rank: January 17, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *South Carolina state legislator, 13 years. *Major general of South Carolina militia.
*Aide to Milledge L. Bonham, March 1861– July, 1861.
*14th South Carolina Infantry, Lt. Colonel, September 9, 1861, Colonel, August 11, 1862.
*Wounded four times: Cold Harbor I, June 27, 1862; Second Bull Run; Chancellorsville; Spotsylvania.
McIntosh, James M. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: January 24, 1862
*USMA, 1849. *Son of U.S. Col. James S. McIntosh, mortally wounded at Battle of Molino Del Ray in Mexican–American War.
*Brother of Union Brevet Major General John B. McIntosh, a graduate of U.S. Naval Academy. *Last in class at USMA.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 7, 1861. *2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles, Colonel, May 1, 1861.
*Aide to Ben McCulloch, July 29, 1861. *Wounded at Wilson’s Creek. *Killed at Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862, aged 34.
McLaws, Lafayette Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 25, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: May 23, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
*USMA, 1842. *Nephew of Zachary Taylor. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 23, 1861.
*Assistant quartermaster in Georgia, April 18, 1861–June 1861. *10th Georgia Infantry, Colonel, June 17, 1861.
*Relieved by Longstreet because of insubordination, failure of assault at Fort Sanders in Knoxville campaign.
*Court martial charges ordered dropped by Samuel Cooper, January 5, 1864. *Restored to command by Jefferson Davis.
*Court-martialed by Braxton Bragg for neglect of duty, February 3, 1864, found guilty May 4, 1864.
*Returned to duty by Jefferson Davis the same day. *Assigned to command in Georgia and under Joseph E. Johnston.
McNair, Evander Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *4th Arkansas Infantry, Captain, August 17, 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 1861, Colonel, October 29, 1861.
*Brigade command August 25, 1862. *Wounded at Chickamauga.
McRae, Dandridge Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 5, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Inspector General of Arkansas on staff of Governor Henry Massey Rector, 1861.
*3rd Battalion Arkansas Infantry, Major, July 15, 1861.
*21st Arkansas Infantry, Lt. Colonel, December 3, 1861, Colonel, January 1862.
*Resigned commission in late 1864.
Mercer, Hugh Weedon Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 29, 1861
conf: December 20, 1861
re-conf: June 10, 1864
*USMA, 1828. *Grandson of Revolutionary War General Hugh Mercer. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 30, 1835.
*1st Georgia Infantry, Colonel, April 13, 1861.
*Accompanied Hardee to Savannah after Battle of Jonesboro due to ill health and had no more field duty.
Miller, William Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: August 2, 1864
nom: August 5, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*Mexican–American War. *Commanded battalion of 6 companies as Major, 1861.
*1st Florida Infantry, Major, April 1862, Colonel, August 15, 1862.
*Initial brigade command, October 8, 1862. *Wounded at Perryville. *Seriously wounded at Stones River.
*Brigadier general in command of Florida reserve forces. *Commanded District of Florida.
Moody, Young Marshall Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1865
nom: March 11, 1865
conf: March 13, 1865
*11th Alabama Infantry, Captain, May 1861. *43rd Alabama Infantry: Lt. Colonel, April 1862, Colonel, November 4, 1862.
*Severely wounded at Battle of Drewry’s Bluff. *Brigade command after Gracie’s death, December 2, 1864.
Moore, John Creed Brigadier General
rank: May 26, 1862
nom: September 19, 1862
re-nom: March 2, 1863
conf: April 11, 1863
recalled: April 13, 1863
*USMA, 1849. *Seminole Wars. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, February 28, 1855.
*Captain, Louisiana Artillery, March 24, 1861.
*Defenses of Galveston, June 25, 1861–October 2, 1861. *2nd Texas Infantry: Colonel, September 2, 1861.
*Initial brigade command, May 1862. *Brigadier general confirmation recalled and tabled.
*Captured at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged October 16, 1863.
*Resigned from Confederate Army, February 3, 1864.
Moore, Patrick T. Brigadier General
rank: September 20, 1864
nom: September 23, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Born September 22, 1821, Galway, Ireland. *1st Virginia Militia, Colonel, April 21, 1861.
*Virginia Provisional Army, Colonel, June 15, 1861. *1st Virginia Infantry: Colonel, July 1, 1861.
*Severely wounded and incapacitated for field duty at Blackburn’s Ford, Virginia, July 18, 1861, 3 days before First Bull Run.
*Volunteer aide to Joseph E. Johnston at Seven Pines and to Longstreet at Seven Days Battles.
*Helped organize Virginia reserve forces in 1864, brigade commander, May 18, 1864.
*At end of war, commanded brigade of Ewell’s Richmond local defense troops.
Morgan, John Hunt
“Thunderbolt”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: December 11, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Two of his sisters married A. P. Hill and Basil Duke. *Mexican–American War.
*Kentucky Militia Captain, 1852–1854 and 1857–1861. *2nd Kentucky Cavalry, Captain, September 1861, Colonel, April 2, 1862.
*First brigade command, October 31, 1862. *Conducted a series of raids in Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio.
*Raided into Ohio in 1863. *Captured near New Lisbon, Ohio.
*Imprisoned in Ohio State Penitentiary with several officers. *Escaped, made way south.
*In command in East Tennessee, December 1863– May 2, 1864, Trans–Allegheny Department (Virginia), May 2, 1864–August 22, 1864.
*Killed at Greeneville, Tennessee, garden of house where had been sleeping, on way to attack at Knoxville, September 3, 1864, aged 39.
Morgan, John Tyler Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 17, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Enlisted as Private, Alabama infantry, April 1861. *5th Alabama Infantry, Major, May 5, 1861. *Resigned in May 1862.
*Major of cavalry. *51st Alabama Partisan Rangers, Colonel, August 11, 1862.
*Declined first offer to command Rodes’s old brigade as brigadier general July 14, 1863. *Resigned 1863.
*51st Alabama Cavalry, Colonel, September 1863. *First brigade command, September 1863.
*Opposed Sherman’s march across Georgia.
Nelson, Allison Brigadier General
rank: September 12, 1862
nom, conf: September 26, 1862
*Mayor of Atlanta. *Georgia state legislator, 1848–1849; 1859–1860. *Mexican–American War.
*Texas state legislator. *Fought Indians. *10th Texas Infantry, Colonel, September 1861. *First brigade command June 1862.
*Assigned to command two brigades under Holmes the day after falling ill of typhoid (camp) fever.
*Died, October 7, 1862, Austin, Texas, aged 40.
Nicholls, Francis Redding Tillou Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 14, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1855. *Resigned as 2nd lieutenant, U.S. Army, October 1, 1856, to study law.
*8th Louisiana Infantry: Captain, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 9, 1861.
*Wounded at Winchester and lost left arm. *Captured May 26, 1862. *Exchanged for Samuel M. Bowman, September 30, 1862.
*15th Louisiana Infantry, Colonel, July 24, 1862. *Left foot torn off at Chancellorsville; leg amputated.
*Commanded at Lynchburg, Virginia August 11, 1863–May 17, 1864.
*Command of volunteer and conscript bureau in Trans–Mississippi Department.
Page, Richard Lucian
“Ramrod”, “Bombast”
Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1864
nom: March 7, 1864
conf: June 9, 1864
*First cousin of Robert E. Lee. *Midshipman in U.S. Navy, 1824.
*Executive officer of Norfolk Navy Yard. *Dismissed as commander, U.S. Navy, April 18, 1861.
*Designed and supervised construction of works on James River and Nansemond River.
*In naval battle of Port Royal, South Carolina. *Transferred to Confederate States Army. *In command of outer defenses of Mobile Bay.
*Surrendered after Union attack, August 1864. *Captured at Fort Morgan, Alabama, August 23, 1864. *Died August 9, 1901, aged 93.
Palmer, Joseph B. Brigadier General
rank: November 15, 1864
(temporary)
nom: December 3, 1864
conf: December 7, 1864
*Tennessee state legislator, 1849–1853. *Mayor of Murfreesboro, 1855–1859. *18th Tennessee Infantry: Captain, May 1861, Colonel, June 1861.
*Captured at Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862. *Exchanged August 15, 1862. *Initial brigade command, October 20, 1862.
*Wounded three times at Stones River. *Severely wounded at Chickamauga, returned for Atlanta campaign. *Wounded at Jonesboro.
*Brigade in rear guard after Nashville. *Wounded at Bentonville
Parsons, Mosby M. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 5, 1862
conf: April 30, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *Attorney general of Tennessee, 1853–1857.
*Commanded 6th Division, Missouri State Guard until April 9, 1862. *Then commander-in-chief of Missouri State Guard.
*Assigned to duty as major general by General E. Kirby Smith, April 30, 1864 but never officially appointed.
Paxton, Elisha F. “Bull” Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*27th Virginia Infantry, 1st Lieutenant of Rockbridge Rifles, April 18, 1861, Major, October 14, 1861.
*In Jackson’s Valley campaign of 1862 as a major on Stonewall Jackson’s staff.
*Assigned as brigadier general to command the Stonewall Brigade, September 1, 1862.
*Killed at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, aged 35.
Payne, William H.F. Brigadier General
rank: November 1, 1864
nom: November 4, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*VMI, 1848. *4th Virginia Cavalry: Private, Captain, April 26, 1861, Major, September 17, 1861.
*Wounded and captured at Williamsburg, May 1862. *Exchanged August 15, 1862. *2nd North Carolina Cavalry: Lt. Colonel.
*Wounded and captured at Hanover, Pennsylvania, June 30, 1863 during Gettysburg campaign. *Exchanged May 8, 1864.
*Wounded at Five Forks. *Captured near Warrenton on night of President Lincoln’s assassination.
Peck, William R.
“Big Peck”
Brigadier General
rank: February 18, 1865
nom., conf: February 22, 1865
*9th Louisiana Infantry: Private, July 7, 1861 Captain, 1861, Lt. Colonel, April 24, 1862, Colonel, October 8, 1863.
*Commanded brigade with rank of colonel in several actions including Monocacy.
*Eicher says wounded at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864. *Warner says repeatedly placed himself in danger in battle but never wounded.
Pegram, John Brigadier General
rank: November 7, 1862
nom: November 10, 1862
conf: April 23, 1863
*USMA, 1854. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 10, 1861. *20th Virginia Infantry, Lt. Colonel, July 1861.
*Wounded at Rich Mountain. *Captured at Elkins, (West) Virginia, two days later, July 13, 1861.
*Exchanged January 24, 1862 for James M. Bomford. *Colonel, chief engineer, staffs of Beauregard, Bragg.
*Army of Northern Virginia after Chickamauga. *Commanded infantry brigade at the Wilderness, where wounded.
*Valley Campaigns of 1864. *Commanded Rodes’s division after Rodes’s death at Winchester; not formally promoted to major general.
*Killed at Dabney’s Mill (Hatcher’s Run), February 6, 1865, aged 33.
Pemberton, John Clifford Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
nom: January 10, 1862
rank, conf: January 14, 1862
Lt. General
rank, conf: October 10, 1862
conf: October 13, 1862
*Born August 10, 1814, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. *USMA, 1837. *Wounded in Mexican–American War.
*Wife was from Norfolk, Virginia. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 29, 1861.
*Assistant Adjutant General, forces in and around Richmond, April 29, 1861. *Colonel, May 8, 1861.
*Major, artillery, June 15, 1861. *Surrendered Vicksburg on July 4, 1863 and captured. *Exchanged October 13, 1863.
*No further duty for his rank. *Resigned as a general officer on May 9, 1864. *Then Lt. Colonel of artillery.
*Inspector General of artillery, January 7, 1865.
Pender, William Dorsey Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 22, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General
rank: May 27, 1863
unconfirmed: died
*USMA, 1854. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 21, 1861. *3rd (later 13th) North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, May 27, 1861
*Transferred to 6th North Carolina Infantry, August 6, 1861. *Wounded five times before Gettysburg.
*Initial brigade command May 27, 1862. *Division command at Gettysburg. *Mortally wounded on the second day.
*Died at Staunton, Virginia, July 18, 1863, aged 29.
Pendleton, William N. Brigadier General
nom: March 25, 1862
rank, conf: March 26, 1862
*USMA, 1830. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, October 31, 1833. *Virginia Artillery, Captain, May 1, 1861, Colonel, July 13, 1861.
*Wounded at First Bull Run. *Chief of Artillery of Joseph E. Johnston. *Wounded twice.
*Nominal chief of artillery of Army of Northern Virginia; mainly administrative work in last two years of war.
Perrin, Abner Monroe Brigadier General
rank: September 10, 1863
nom: September 17, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *14th South Carolina Infantry: Captain, July 1861, Colonel, February 20, 1863. *Wounded at Fredericksburg.
*Killed at Spotsylvania Court House, May 12, 1864, aged 37, leading men to reinforce Confederate line after Union forces took Mule Shoe salient.
Perry, Edward Aylesworth Brigadier General
rank: August 28, 1862
nom: September 15, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*2nd Florida Infantry: Captain, May 1861, Colonel, May 1862. *Severely wounded at Battle of Frayser’s Farm.
*Led Florida brigade at Chancellorsville.
*Contracted typhoid fever. *Returned for start of Overland campaign. *Severely wounded at the Wilderness.
*Upon return, assigned to reserve forces of Alabama.
Perry, William F. Brigadier General
rank: February 21, 1865
nom: February 28, 1865
conf: March 16, 1865
*Self-taught. *Twice elected as Alabama’s first superintendent of public instruction. *President, East Alabama Female College, 1858–1862.
*44th Alabama Infantry: Private, May 6, 1862, Major, May 16, 1862, Lt. Colonel September 1, 1862, Colonel, September 17, 1862.
*Wounded at Gettysburg, New Market Heights. *After Cold Harbor II, led Law’s former brigade until surrender at Appomattox Court House.
Pettigrew, James Johnston Brigadier General
nom: February 24, 1862
rank, conf: February 26, 1862
*South Carolina legislator. *Colonel South Carolina Militia.
*Served in Charleston Harbor at fall of Fort Sumter. *1st South Carolina Rifles, Hampton’s Legion, Private, April 1861, Colonel, April 1861.
*12th (22nd) North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, July 11, 1861. *Wounded and captured at Seven Pines. *Exchanged August 15, 1862.
*Defenses of Petersburg and North Carolina. *Commanded Heth’s division after Heth was wounded at Gettysburg.
*Led division against center of Union Army line on Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg in charge on third day known as Pickett’s Charge.
*Mortally wounded, July 14, 1863, Falling Waters, Maryland, commanding rear guard of Army of Northern Virginia in retreat from Gettysburg.
*Died July 17, 1863, Bunker Hill, Virginia, aged 35.
Pettus, Edmund Winston Brigadier General
rank: September 18, 1863
nom: September 19, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*20th Alabama Infantry, Major, September 9, 1861, Lt. Colonel, October 8, 1861, Colonel May 28, 1863.
*Captured December 29, 1862; exchanged. *Captured at Fort Gibson, May 1, 1863, escaped. *Captured at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.
*Exchanged September 12, 1863. *Wounded at Bentonville.
Pickett, George E. Brigadier General
nom: January 10, 1862
rank, conf: January 14, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
*USMA, 1846, last in class. *Mexican–American War. *Defied British in 1859 in occupation of San Juan Island.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 25, 1861. *Colonel, Artillery, July 23, 1861. *Severely wounded at Gaines Mill.
*Advanced his division against center of Union line on Cemetery Ridge on third day at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863.
*Action became known as Pickett’s Charge. *Later commanded Department of Virginia and North Carolina. *Defense of Petersburg.
*Defeated by Sheridan at Five Forks while away from front line for most of battle. *Relieved of command after Sayler’s Creek.
Pike, Albert Brigadier General
nom: August 13, 1861
rank: August 15, 1861
conf: August 16, 1861
*Mexican–American War. *Fought an inconclusive duel with John S. Roane, July 29, 1847.
*Responsible for recruiting Native American (Indian) troops.
*Pike was blamed for dubious conduct of Native American troops at Pea Ridge.
*Resigned July 12, 1862, resignation accepted November 11, 1862.
*Masonic Scottish Rite Sovereign Grand Master, 1859–1891.
Pillow, Gideon J. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 9, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
re-conf: February 17, 1864
*Law partner of President James K. Polk. *Brigadier general of volunteers in Mexican–American War, wounded.
*Second in command at Fort Donelson. *Passed command to Simon Buckner
after John B. Floyd passed command to him. *Escaped with Floyd before surrender.
*Relieved of duty by Jefferson Davis, April 16, 1862. *Resignation accepted October 21, 1862, rescinded December 10, 1862.
*Assigned to volunteer and conscript bureau in Tennessee.
*Commissary general of prisoners from February 1865 after death of John Winder.
De Polignac, Camille A.J.M.
“Pole-Cat”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: January 10, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
Major General
rank: April 8, 1864
nom: June 11, 1864
conf: June 13, 1864
*French Army lieutenant, 1853–1859. *Crimean War.
*In Central America when war began; moved to Louisiana. *Lt. Colonel, July 16, 1861, on staffs of Beauregard and Bragg.
*Served in Louisiana with Richard Taylor. *Assistant Inspector General, Army of Mississippi, July 17, 1862–July 1863.
*Initial brigade command, July 1863. *Ran blockade March 17, 1865 in order to urge Napoleon III to intervene on behalf of the Confederacy.
*Led 1st French Division in Franco-Prussian War. *Awarded the Legion of Honor.
*Died November 15, 1913, Paris, France, last survivor of Confederate major generals.
Polk, Leonidas Major General
rank, nom: June 25, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Lt. General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
*Uncle of Lucius E. Polk. *USMA, 1827.
*Resigned as Brevet 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, December 1, 1827.
*Became an Episcopal bishop. *Army of Tennessee corps commander. *Censured by Bragg for dilatory tactics at Chickamauga.
*Killed by Union artillery shell at Pine Mountain, Georgia, near Marietta, Georgia, during the Atlanta campaign on June 14, 1864
while in the company of Joseph E. Johnston and Hardee, aged 58.
Polk, Lucius E. Brigadier General
rank: December 13, 1862
nom: December 20, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Nephew of Leonidas Polk. *15th Arkansas Infantry: Private, May 1861, 2nd Lieutenant, January 1862, Colonel, April 11, 1862.
*Succeeded Patrick Cleburne in brigade command, December 14, 1862. *Wounded at Shiloh, Richmond, Kentucky, Perryville.
*Severely wounded for the fourth time at Kennesaw Mountain in June 1864. *Retired from Army, July 1864.
Posey, Carnot Brigadier General
rank: November 1, 1862
nom: March 5, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War, wounded. *President Buchanan appointed him U.S. District Attorney for Southern District of Mississippi, 1858–1861.
*Captain of Wilkinson Rifles, Captain Mississippi infantry, May 21, 1861. *16th Mississippi Infantry, Colonel, June 4, 1861.
*Wounded at Cross Keys. *Initial brigade command August 30, 1862. *Mortally wounded at Bristoe Station, October 14, 1863.
*Died November 13, 1863, Charlottesville, Virginia, aged 45.
Preston, John S. Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
June 10, 1864
*South Carolina state senator for 8 years. *Lived abroad, 1856–1860.
*Lt. Colonel and Assistant Adjutant General to Beauregard at Fort Sumter, First Bull Run. *Colonel, April 23, 1863.
*Served in command of prison camps, conscript camps. *From July 30, 1863, superintendent of bureau of conscription, Richmond, Virginia.
Preston, William Brigadier General
rank: April 14, 1862
nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Elected to both houses of Kentucky legislature. *U.S. Representative from Kentucky, December 6, 1852–March 3, 1855.
*Minister to Spain, 1858–1861. *Colonel, on staff of brother-in-law, Albert Sidney Johnston, until Johnston was killed at Shiloh.
*In 1864, appointed Confederate minister to Imperial Mexican government but could not reach Maximilian’s court.
*Remainder of war in Trans–Mississippi Department. *No record of supposed promotion to major general.
Price, Sterling “Old Pap” Major General
rank, nom, conf:
March 6, 1862
*Six years in Missouri legislature; speaker for four years. *U.S. Representative from Missouri, March 4, 1846–August 12, 1846.
*Mexican–American War. *Military governor of New Mexico. *Governor of Missouri, January 3, 1853–January 5, 1857.
*Disagreed with extreme Unionists and joined pro-Confederate Missouri State Guard as major general, May 18, 1861–March 17, 1862.
*Combined with Ben McCulloch at Wilson’s Creek to defeat Nathaniel Lyon.
*Captured Lexington, Missouri and 3,000 prisoners. *Appointed major general without previous appointment to brigadier general.
*Wounded at Wilson’s Creek, Pea Ridge. Iuka, Second Corinth. *Failed to retake Helena, Arkansas.
*Aided E. Kirby Smith in repulsing Camden Expedition. *Raided Missouri in September–October, 1864. *Defeated at Westport.
Rains, Gabriel J. Brigadier General
rank, nom: September 23, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1827. *Brevet Major for Seminole Wars. *Lt. Colonel, 5th U.S. Infantry, June 5, 1860; resigned July 31, 1861.
*In withdrawal from Yorktown, he devised and deployed the anti-personnel mine. *Longstreet forbade further use of mines during campaign.
*Was severely criticized by A. P. Hill for Seven Pines and relieved. *First superintendent of the volunteer and conscript bureau, December 1862–May 1863.
*Bureau apparently a cover for Confederate States Navy Torpedo Bureau. *Set up mine and torpedo defenses at several cities and harbors.
Rains, James Edwards   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Ramseur, Stephen Dodson Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General (temporary)
nom: May 31, 1862
rank, conf: June 1, 1862.
*USMA, 1860. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 6, 1861.
*3rd North Carolina Infantry, Captain, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 27, 1861. *Thrown from horse and broke collarbone, July 25, 1861.
*49th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 12, 1862. *Wounded at Malvern Hill, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania Court House.
*With General Jubal Early in Valley Campaigns of 1864. *Mortally wounded at Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864.
*Captured, died the next day, aged 27.
Randolph, George Wythe Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
February 12, 1862
*Born at Monticello, the home of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Jefferson. *Midshipman in Navy, age 13, served for 6 years.
*Resigned from U.S. Navy, 1839. *Organized Richmond Howitzers artillery battery after John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry.
*Colonel and Chief of Artillery for Magruder at Big Bethel, June 1861. *1st Virginia Artillery, September 1861, Colonel.
*Artillery, Department of Norfolk, February 1862. *Confederate Secretary of War, March 18, 1862. *Resigned November 17, 1862.
*Soon diagnosed with tuberculosis. *Went to France for his health. *Resigned as brigadier general November 15, 1862.
*Resigned Army commission, December 18, 1864. *Returned to Virginia after the war. Died of tuberculosis and pneumonia, April 3, 1867, aged 59.
Ransom, Matt Whitaker Brigadier General
rank: June 13, 1863
nom: June 15, 1863
conf: February 16, 1864
*North Carolina legislator, 1858–1861. *1st North Carolina Militia, Private, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 16, 1861.
*35th North Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 21, 1862, part of younger brother’s, Robert Ransom Jr.’s, brigade. *Wounded three times.
Ransom, Robert Jr. Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
Major General
rank: May 26, 1863
nom: May 27, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1850. *Younger brother of Matt Whitaker Ransom.
*Resigned as Captain and regimental adjutant, U.S. Army, May 24, 1861.
*1st North Carolina Cavalry, (aka 9th North Carolina Volunteers), Colonel, October 13, 1861.
*Commanded cavalry during Jubal Early’s raid on Washington (Fort Stevens). *Retired due to illness in Fall 1864.
*Command of second subdistrict, District of South Carolina, November 5, 1864–May 2, 1865.
Reynolds, Alexander Welch
“Gauley”
Brigadier General
rank: September 14, 1863
nom: September 17, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1838. *Seminole War. *Dropped as Captain, U.S. Army as AWOL, October 4, 1861.
*50th Virginia Infantry: Colonel, July 10, 1861. *Initial brigade command March 1862.
*Captured and paroled at Vicksburg. *Exchanged, October 13, 1863. *Wounded at New Hope Church.
Reynolds, Daniel H. Brigadier General (special)
rank: March 5, 1864
nom: March 12, 1864
conf: May 16, 1864
*1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles, Captain, May 25, 1861, Major, April 14, 1862, Lt. Colonel, May 1, 1862, Colonel, September 20, 1863.
*Wounded at Franklin. *Lost leg at Bentonville.
Richardson, Robert Vinkler Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: December 1, 1863
nom: December 3, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
recalled January 27, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *Brigadier general, Tennessee Militia, 1861.
*1st Tennessee Partisan Rangers (12th Tennessee Cavalry), Colonel, February 19, 1863. *Wounded near Belmont, March 29, 1863.
*Brigadier general, December 3, 1863, duly confirmed; nomination recalled and returned to President Davis at his request, February 9, 1864.
*Operated with James R. Chalmers until the end of the war.
*Warner, Eicher list as a general.
Ripley, Roswell Sabine Brigadier General
nom: August 13, 1861
rank: August 15, 1861
conf: August 16, 1861
re-conf: June 10, 1864
*USMA, 1843. *Mexican–American War, wrote two-volume history.
*Nephew of Brigadier General James W. Ripley, U.S. Army chief of ordnance, 1861–1863.
*Married into the Middleton family of Charleston, South Carolina, 1852. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and Brevet Major, U.S. Army, March 2, 1853.
*Lt. Colonel of South Carolina forces in 1860. *Occupied Fort Moultrie after Major Robert Anderson moved the garrison to Fort Sumter.
*Occupied Fort Sumter after its surrender. *In command in South Carolina until relieved by Pemberton. *Lt. Colonel, CSA, May 1861.
*Severely wounded at Antietam. *On duty in South Carolina in 1863 and 1864. *Ordered to Joseph E. Johnston’s army in spring 1865.
Roane, John Selden Brigadier General
nom: March 19, 1862
rank, conf: March 20, 1862
*Arkansas State legislator, 1844, speaker. *Mexican–American War.
*Fought a duel with Captain, later Confederate Brigadier General, Albert Pike.
*Governor of Arkansas, April 19, 1849–November 15, 1852. *Opponent of secession, did not take up arms immediately. *Fought at Prairie Grove.
*Served in Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas in garrison and detached duty. *Died April 8, 1867, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, aged 50.
Roberts, William Paul Brigadier General
rank: February 21, 1865
nom: February 22, 1865
conf: February 23, 1865
*19th North Carolina Infantry: Private, June 10, 1861, age 19, Sergeant, June 1861, 1st Lieutenant, November 20, 1861.
*2nd North Carolina Cavalry: 1st Lieutenant, September 13, 1862, Captain, November 19, 1863, Major, February 18, 1864, Colonel, June 23, 1864.
*Wounded in head, Haw’s Shop, Virginia, June 5, 1864. *Youngest general officer in Confederate service.
*Brigade fought well but was overcome at Five Forks, April 1, 1865. *Died March 28, 1910, Norfolk, Virginia, aged 68.
Robertson, Beverly Holcombe Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 9, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*USMA, 1849. *Dismissed as Captain, U.S. Army, for disloyalty, August 8, 1861. *4th Virginia Cavalry, Colonel, September 19, 1861.
*Fought in Jackson’s Valley Campaign of 1862. *Commanded cavalry after death of Turner Ashby.
*Distrusted by Jeb Stuart. *Relieved after Gettysburg and assigned to South Carolina until evacuated at Sherman’s approach.
*Wounded at West Buckhead Church, Georgia, November 19, 1864. *Died November 12, 1910, Washington, D.C., aged 83.
Robertson, Felix Huston Colonel
Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: July 26, 1864
nom: rejected:
February 22, 1865
See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
*Last surviving general officer of the Confederacy if appointment counted despite Senate rejection.
Robertson, Jerome Bonaparte
“Polly”, “Aunt Polly”, “Bob”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Father of Felix Huston Robertson. *Army of Republic of Texas. *Member of both houses of Texas legislature. *Delegate to secession convention.
*5th Texas Infantry Regiment, Captain, August 3, 1861, Lt. Colonel, October 10, 1861, Colonel, September 26, 1862.
*Wounded at Gaines Mill, Second Bull Run, Gettysburg. *Initial brigade command, November 6, 1862.
*Court martialed for insubordination, January 26, 1864, but charges dropped. *Spent remainder of war in Texas in command of state reserve corps.
Roddey, Philip D. Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 3, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Captain of a cavalry company in July 1861. *Scouting missions.
*4th Alabama Cavalry, Colonel, October 1, 1862. *Served under Forrest and Wheeler.
*Forrest and Roddey swam the Alabama River to escape after collapse of Confederate lines at Selma, Alabama.
Rodes, Robert E. Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: May 2, 1863
nom: May 7, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*VMI, 1848. *Captain, Alabama Militia, January 1861. *5th Alabama Infantry, Colonel, May 11, 1861.
*Wounded at Seven Pines but fought at Gaines Mill. *Wounded at Antietam.
*Led van of Stonewall Jackson’s flank march at Chancellorsville.
*Major general for services at Chancellorsville.
*Mortally wounded at Winchester, Virginia, directing a counterattack that helped Confederate force escape, September 19, 1864, aged 35.
Ross, Lawrence Sullivan
“Sul”
Brigadier General
rank: December 21, 1863
nom: January 9, 1864
conf: February 5, 1864
*Fought the Comanches. *Aide to Sam Houston. *Captain in Texas Rangers, 1859. *Colonel, Texas militia.
*6th Texas Cavalry: Private, April 1861, Major, September 18, 1861, Colonel, May 14, 1862. *Initial brigade command, September 1863.
*Captured at Newnan, Georgia, July 30, 1864 but rescued the same day.
Rosser, Thomas L.
“Savior of the Valley”
Brigadier General
rank: September 28, 1863
nom: October 10, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
Major General (temporary)
rank: November 1, 1864
nom: November 4, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*USMA, resigned two weeks before graduation in 1861 *1st Lieutenant, ACSA, Artillery, March 16, 1861.
*CSA Artillery, Captain, September 17, 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 10, 1862. *Wounded at Mechanicsville. *5th Virginia Cavalry, Colonel, June 24, 1862.
*Wounded at Kelly’s Ford. *Wounded five more times. *Command of Laurel Brigade. *In October 1864 assumed command of Early’s cavalry.
*Defeated at Woodstock and Cedar Creek. *Two raids into West Virginia, then returned to Siege of Petersburg. *Battle of Five Forks.
*Refused to surrender at Appomattox Court House but was captured and paroled in May 1865.
*On June 10, 1898, appointed brigadier general of U.S. Volunteers for the Spanish–American War. *Mustered out October 31, 1898.
Ruggles, Daniel Brigadier General
nom: August 6, 1861
rank, conf: August 9, 1861
re-conf: February 17, 1864
*Born in Massachusetts. *USMA, 1833. *Seminole War of 1839–1840. *Mexican–American War. *Married into a Virginia family.
*Resigned as Captain and Brevet Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, May 7, 1861. *Commanded Virginia state forces on Rappahannock River.
*Led Bragg’s First Division at Shiloh. *After Second Corinth, administrative duties, mainly in Alabama and Mississippi.
*Commissary general of prisoners, March 30, 1865.
St. John, Isaac M. Brigadier General
and Commissary General
rank, conf: February 16, 1865
nom: February 14, 1865
*Chief engineer for Magruder at Yorktown; Captain. *Major of artillery, October 1862.
*In charge of Nitre (later Nitre and Mining) Corps.
*Lt. Colonel and Colonel in 1863. *Produced crucial ordnance supplies for Confederate Army.
Sanders, John C.C. Brigadier General
(temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom: June 6, 1864
conf: June 7, 1864
*11th Alabama Infantry: Private, April 1861, Captain, June 11, 1861, Colonel, September 11, 1862.
*Severely wounded at Frayser’s Farm. *Wounded four times before death. *Initial brigade command, August 15, 1863.
*Killed during the Siege of Petersburg while fighting along the Weldon Railroad, August 21, 1864, aged 24.
Scales, Alfred Moore Brigadier General
rank: June 13, 1863
nom: June 15, 1863
conf: February 16, 1864
*North Carolina state legislator for four terms. *U.S. Representative, March 4, 1857–March 3, 1859.
*13th North Carolina Infantry: Private, April 3, 1861, Captain, May 3, 1861, Colonel, November 14, 1861.
*Wounded at Chancellorsville. *Severely wounded at Gettysburg.
Scott, Thomas M. Brigadier General
rank: May 10, 1864
nom: May 21, 1864
conf: May 24, 1864
*12th Louisiana Infantry, Captain, then Colonel, August 13, 1861. *Initial brigade command, March 1864.
*Severely wounded Franklin, November 30, 1864; no further service.
Scurry, William Read Brigadier General
rank: September 12, 1862
nom, conf: September 26, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *4th Texas Cavalry Regiment, Lt. Colonel, August 23, 1861.
*Fought at Valverde, wounded at Glorieta Pass.
*In command at Glorieta because Sibley allegedly under doctor’s care, more likely intoxicated.
*Killed at Jenkins’ Ferry, April 30, 1864.
Sears, Claudius Wistar Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1864
nom: March 7, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*USMA, 1841. *Resigned from U.S. Army as 2nd Lieutenant in 1842.
*17th Mississippi Infantry: Private, May 1861, Captain, July 1861. *46th Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, December 11, 1862.
*Captured and paroled at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged October 1863. *Fought in Atlanta campaign until incapacitated by illness.
*Lost leg at Nashville. *Captured near Pulaski, Tennessee a few days after the battle.
Semmes, Paul Jones Brigadier General
rank, nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*Cousin of Raphael Semmes. *Captain of Columbus Guards militia company, then Colonel, 1846–1861.
*Brigadier general of Georgia Militia, April 25, 1861. *2nd Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Colonel, May 7, 1861.
*Mortally wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863, in attack on the Round Tops.
*Died during the retreat from Gettysburg, July 10, 1863, Martinsburg, (West) Virginia, aged 48.
Sharp, Jacob H. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank, nom: July 26, 1864
conf: February 21, 1865
*1st Battalion of Mississippi Infantry (44th Mississippi Infantry): Private. 1861, Captain, February 1862, Colonel, August 1863.
*Initial brigade command, September 20, 1863.
Shelby, Joseph Orville Brigadier General
rank: December 15, 1863
nom: January 9, 1864
conf: February 5, 1864
*Led pro-slavery Kentuckians in Kansas–Missouri border conflict of the 1850s. *Missouri State Guard, Captain, June 1861.
*5th Missouri Cavalry, Colonel, June 1862. *Initial brigade command, June 1862.
*Appointed major general by E. Kirby Smith, May 10, 1865; unconfirmed.
*At end of the war, Shelby and a few men buried battle flag, went to Mexico to fight, could not agree on which side.
*Returned to Missouri after fall of Maximilian, 1867.
Shelley, Charles M. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: September 17, 1864
nom: September 23, 1864
conf: February 21, 1865
*Lieutenant of Talladega Artillery, 1861. *5th Alabama Infantry, Captain, May 11, 1861. *30th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, May 22, 1862.
*Captured at Vicksburg. *Upon exchange, joined Army of Tennessee. *Lost 432 men killed and wounded out of 1100 at Franklin.
*Shelley’s horse was killed under him at Franklin; he had bullet holes in his uniform.
Shoup, Francis A. Brigadier General
rank: September 12, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: April 11, 1863
*Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, January 10, 1860, to study law. *Admitted to Indiana bar, 1860. *Captain, Indiana militia.
*Moved to Florida (St. Augustine), admitted to Florida bar, 1861.
*No apparent reason for adherence to Confederacy other than admiration for Southern men in U.S. Army, recent move to Florida.
*Artillery, Lieutenant, March 16, 1861; Major, November 7, 1861. *Chief of artillery for Hardee at Shiloh, for Hindman at Prairie Grove.
*Commanded a Louisiana brigade at Vicksburg. *Captured July 4, 1863, paroled. *Exchanged October 13, 1863.
*Chief of artillery to Joseph E. Johnston in Atlanta campaign. *Chief of staff for Hood.
Sibley, Henry Hopkins Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
re-conf: June 10, 1864
*USMA, 1838. *Seminole War. *Mexican–American War. *Utah War. *Inventor of the Sibley tent. *Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, May 13, 1861.
*Colonel, Regular Confederate Army Cavalry, May 16, 1861. *Commanded disastrous Confederate New Mexico Campaign.
*Defeated at Glorieta Pass, New Mexico, March 26–28, 1862, where allegedly intoxicated.
*Lost many men in retreat to Texas; Union forces destroyed most of his supplies.
*E. Kirby Smith twice preferred charges against him. *Alleged alcohol problems. *Without a command at the end of the war.
Simms, James P. Brigadier General
rank: December 8, 1864
nom: December 13, 1864
conf: February 18, 1865
*Brigadier general, Georgia militia. *2nd Lieutenant CSA, 6th Georgia Militia, October 21, 1861.
*42nd Georgia Infantry, 1st Lieutenant, April 1862, Captain, August 20, 1862.
*53rd Georgia Infantry, Major, September 24, 1862, Colonel, October 8, 1862.
*Wounded at Knoxville. *Initial brigade command, September 30, 1864. *Distinguished at Cedar Creek.
*Captured at Sayler’s Creek, released July 24, 1865.
Slack, William Yarney Colonel
Brigadier General
(posthumous)
rank, nom: April 12, 1862
conf: April 17, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Brigadier general of Missouri State Guard, July 4, 1861– March 21, 1862. *Severely wounded at Wilson’s Creek.
*Promoted to brigadier general, CSA, after his death on March 21, 1862 from wounds received at Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862, close to old wound.
*Slack was taken to a house within a mile of the battlefield but after a few days was moved to Moore’s Mill, seven miles away.
*Condition rapidly deteriorated, leading to his death, March 21, 1862, aged 45.
*Confederate Senate may not have known of Slack’s death at time of confirmation.
*Warner, Eicher list as a general.
Slaughter, James E. Brigadier General
rank: March 8, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*Born in June 1827 on his father’s estate, which would become the battlefield of Cedar Mountain or Slaughter’s Mountain.
*Nephew of President James Madison. *Withdrew from VMI to accept commission in U.S. Army.
*Dismissed as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 14, 1861. *1st Lieutenant, artillery, March 16, 1861.
*Captain of artillery with Bragg at Pensacola. *Major, Assistant Adjutant General, November 6, 1861.
*Assistant Inspector General with Albert Sidney Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. *Line command at Mobile.
*Chief of artillery for Magruder at Galveston in April 1863; later, Magruder’s chief of staff.
*Commanded Confederate force at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas, the last engagement of the war.
Smith, Edmund Kirby
“Ted”, “Seminole”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 17, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: October 11, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Lieutenant General
rank: October 9, 1862
nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 11, 1862
General (PACS)
rank: nom: February 19, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*USMA, 1845. *Mexican–American War. *Professor of mathematics at West Point. *Wounded in campaigns against Indians, May 13, 1859.
*As Major of 2nd U.S.Cavalry, refused to surrender Fort Colorado, Texas to Texas militia under Ben McCulloch.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army on April 6, 1861 when native state of Florida seceded. *Severely wounded at First Bull Run.
*Won Battle of Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 1862. *Command of Trans–Mississippi Department, January 14, 1863–May 26, 1865.
*Repulsed Banks’s Red River expedition and Steele’s associated Camden Expedition.
*Almost the last Confederate general to surrender on May 26, 1865.
*Fled to Mexico and Cuba but returned November 14, 1865 to take amnesty oath.
Smith, Gustavus Woodson Major General
rank, nom: September 19, 1861
conf: December 13. *1861
*USMA, 1842. *Mexican–American War. *USMA professor. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant and Brevet Captain, U.S. Army, December 18, 1854.
*Civil engineer. *Street commissioner of New York City, 1858–1861. *Appointed major general without having prior brigadier general appointment.
*Commanded a wing of Army of Northern Virginia during Peninsula campaign. *Interim Secretary of War, November 1862.
*Resigned in 1863 because of the promotion of junior officers over him. *Volunteer aide to Beauregard.
*Superintendent of Etowah Iron Works, 1863–1864. *Major general of Georgia Militia, June 1, 1864–April 20, 1865.
*Fought on the Chattahoochee before Battle of Atlanta. *Fought at Savannah; surrendered at Macon, Georgia, April 20, 1865.
Smith, James Argyle Brigadier General
rank: September 30, 1863
nom: October 1, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1853. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 9, 1861. *Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, Regular Confederate, May 1861.
*Major, March 21, 1862, Assistant adjutant general to Leonidas Polk. *2nd Tennessee Infantry, Lt. Colonel, April 1862.
*5th Confederate Infantry, Colonel, September 1862. *Wounded at Chattanooga and Atlanta.
*Led Cleburne’s division after his death at Franklin. *Led part of remainder of Cheatham’s corps in Carolinas campaign.
Smith, Martin Luther Brigadier General
nom: March 19, 1862
rank, conf: April 11, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
conf: April 30, 1863
*Born in Tompkins County, New York. *USMA, 1842. *Mexican–American War. *Wife from Athens, Georgia.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 1, 1861. *Major, CSA Corps of Engineers, March 16, 1861.
*Engineer, July 22, 1861–April 11, 1862. *21st Louisiana Infantry: Colonel, January 30, 1862.
*Planned defenses and commanded troops at New Orleans and Vicksburg. *Captured at Vicksburg.
*A paroled prisoner of war for seven months until February 1864. *Chief engineer of Army of Northern Virginia, then Army of Tennessee.
*Prepared defenses of Mobile under Beauregard. *Died July 29, 1866, Savannah, Georgia, aged 46.
Smith, Preston Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 27, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Colonel of militia regiment, May 1861, mustered into CSA as 154th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment; Colonel, August 17, 1861.
*Initial brigade command March 2, 1862. *Severely wounded at Shiloh.
*Commanded brigade at Richmond, Kentucky, then division after Cleburne wounded.
*At Battle of Chickamauga, rode in front of Union Army detachment during an attack at dark and was mortally wounded in the chest.
*Died September 19, 1863, Chickamauga, Georgia, aged 39.
Smith, Thomas Benton Brigadier General
(temporary)
rank: July 29, 1864
nom: August 2, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*Nashville Military Institute. *20th Tennessee Infantry Regiment, 2nd Lieutenant. *20th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Colonel, May 1862.
*Initial brigade command, August 1, 1862. *Severely wounded at Stones River. *Wounded at Chickamauga. *Captured at Nashville.
*After taken prisoner, repeatedly struck with a sword by Colonel William Linn McMillen of 95th Ohio Infantry Regiment.
*Brain partly exposed but survived. *Recovered temporarily and worked as a railroad brakeman after war.
*Admitted to state asylum at Nashville, Tennessee in 1876 and died there 47 years later, May 21, 1923, aged 85.
Smith, William
“Extra Billy”
Brigadier General
rank: January 31, 1863
nom: February 13, 1863
April 23, 1863
Major General
rank: August 12, 1863
nom; August 13, 1863
conf: January 25, 1865
*Lawyer, owner of mail coach service, rapidly expanded routes, resulting in extra payments and a nickname.
*Five terms in Virginia legislature, five terms as U.S. Representative, one term as governor of Virginia.
*As a civilian, took charge of militia company, fought in first land battle of war, the Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1861),
against a Union cavalry company. *49th Virginia Infantry Colonel at First Bull Run.
*Representative at First Regular Confederate Congress, attended between campaigns, resigned from Congress in 1863.
*Wounded 5 times. *Resigned as brigadier general, July 10, 1863, major general as of August 12, 1863.
*Governor of Virginia, inaugurated January 1, 1864, removed and arrested May 9, 1865, paroled June 8, 1865.
*Died near Warrenton, Virginia, May 18, 1887, aged 89.
Smith, William Duncan Brigadier General
rank: March 7, 1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 13, 1862
re-conf: March 18, 1862
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, January 28, 1861. *1st Georgia Regulars, Major, 1861.
*Assistant Adjutant General, defenses of Savannah, June 25, 1861. *20th Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Colonel, July 14, 1861.
*Command of District of South Carolina. *Fought at Secessionville. *Died of yellow fever, October 4, 1862, Charleston, South Carolina, aged 37.
Sorrel, Gilbert Moxley Brigadier General
rank: October 27, 1864
nom: October 31, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*Private in militia company. *Took part in capture of Fort Pulaski. *Volunteer aide to Longstreet at First Bull Run and until October 14, 1861.
*Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, September 11, 1861. *Became Lt. Colonel and chief of staff to 1st Corps of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Wounded at Antietam, Gettysburg. *With Longstreet in Tennessee.
*Detailed to lead troops against Union left at the Wilderness. *Wounded at Petersburg and Hatcher’s Run.
Stafford, Leroy A. Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 8, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *9th Louisiana Infantry, Lt. Colonel, April 24, 1861, Colonel, April 24, 1862; Warner: October 1861.
*Wounded at Antietam. *Captured at Salem Church, Virginia, May 4, 1863. *Exchanged, June 1863.
*Assigned to 2nd Louisiana Brigade, Stonewall Division.
*Mortally wounded on first day at the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. *Died three days later, aged 42.
Starke, Peter Burwell Brigadier General
rank: November 4, 1864
nom: November 15, 1864
conf: December 26, 1864
*Younger brother of Brigadier General William E. Starke. *Mississippi state legislator, 1850–1854, state senator, 1856–1862.
*28th Mississippi Cavalry, Colonel, February 24, 1862. *Fought in defense of Vicksburg.
*Detached to Joseph E. Johnston forces. *Initial brigade command, December 23, 1863.
*Under Forrest in Franklin–Nashville campaign. *With Chalmers in Mississippi at end of war.
Starke, William E. Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 6, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
(posthumous)
*53rd Virginia Infantry, Lt. Colonel, June 1861. *Aide to Robert S. Garnett in West Virginia campaign; then to Robert E. Lee.
*60th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, October 12, 1861. *Wounded at Glendale. *Initial brigade command, July 26, 1862.
*At Second Bull Run, commanded Stonewall Division after Taliaferro wounded.
*Command of division at Antietam after J. R. Jones wounded. *Killed at Antietam, September 17, 1862, aged 48.
Steele, William Brigadier General
rank: September 12, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
*Born at Albany, New York. *USMA, 1840. *Mexican–American War. *Married into Texas family. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 30, 1861.
*7th Texas Cavalry, Colonel, October 29, 1861. *Commanded Mesilla area during Sibley’s New Mexico campaign.
*Command of Indian Territory in 1863. *In charge of Galveston defenses, 1864. *Fought with Taylor in the Red River Campaign.
*Distinguished service at Pleasant Hill. *Commanded Thomas Green’s division after Green died at Blair’s Landing.
Steuart, George H. “Maryland” Brigadier General
rank: March 6. *1862
nom: March 11, 1862
conf: March 18, 1862
*USMA, 1847. *Routine U.S. Army cavalry service. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 22, 1861. *Major General, Maryland Militia, 1861.
*1st Maryland Infantry, Lt. Colonel, June 17, 1861, Colonel, July 21, 1861.
*Seriously wounded at Cross Keys. *Led a brigade at Gettysburg. *Wounded at Payne’s Farm, Virginia, November 27, 1864.
*Continued in command until most of division captured at the “Mule Shoe” at Spotsylvania Court House, May 12, 1864.
*Exchanged, August 3, 1864. *In Pickett’s division north of the James River during Siege of Petersburg.
*Commanded division in Pickett’s absence at Five Forks and in Appomattox Campaign.
Stevens, Clement H.
“Rock”
Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1864
nom: January 28, 1864
conf: February 1, 1864
*Son of a U.S. Navy officer. *Constructed the (arguably) first armored fortification at Morris Island.
*Severely wounded at First Bull Run while serving as aide to his brother-in law, Barnard Bee.
*24th South Carolina Infantry, Colonel, April 1, 1862. *Was in Vicksburg campaign, then transferred to Army of Tennessee.
*Severely wounded at Chickamauga. *Fought in Atlanta campaign.
*Mortally wounded at Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 1864, died five days later at Atlanta, aged 42.
Stevens, Walter H. Brigadier General (special)
rank: August 28, 1864
nom: September 2, 1864
conf: January 17, 1865
*Born Penn Yan, New York. *USMA, 1848. *Served almost entirely in Louisiana and Texas. *Married a sister of Louis Hebert of Louisiana.
*Dismissed as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 2, 1861. *Major, Engineer, at Pensacola, April 1861 and for Beauregard at First Bull Run.
*Major, chief engineer of Army of Northern Virginia under Joseph E. Johnston. *Lt. Colonel, January 31, 1862, Colonel, March 3, 1863.
*In charge of Richmond defenses, after Robert E. Lee assumed command. *Again chief engineer of Army of Northern Virginia.
*Reported to have been the last uniformed man to cross the Mayo Bridge during the evacuation of Richmond after Five Forks.
*Went to Mexico, became chief engineer of Imperial Railroad. *Died of yellow fever, November 12, 1867, Vera Cruz, Mexico, aged 40.
Stevenson, Carter Littlepage Brigadier General
rank: February 27, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
Major General
rank, nom: October 10, 1862
conf: October 13, 1862
*USMA, 1838. *Mexican–American War. *Dismissed as Captain, U.S. Army, June 25, 1861. *53rd Virginia Infantry, Colonel, July 1861.
*Assistant Adjutant General, Army of the Northwest, July 21, 1861–March 27, 1862.
*Captured at Vicksburg, paroled. *Exchanged October 16, 1863.
*At every battle of Army of Tennessee from Chattanooga to Bentonville, except Franklin where division demonstrated against Schofield’s force.
Stewart, Alexander P.
“Old Straight”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 8, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: June 2, 1863
nom: June 5, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
Lieutenant General
(temporary)
rank, nom: June 23, 1864
conf: February 20, 1865
*USMA, 1842. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 31, 1845,
to become a professor at Cumberland University and University of Nashville.
*Initially opposed secession. *Major, CSA, Tennessee Militia, May 17, 1861. *Major, CSA Artillery, August 15, 1861.
*Wounded at Chickamauga and Ezra Church, Georgia.
Stovall, Marcellus A. Brigadier General
rank: January 20, 1863
nom: January 23, 1865
conf: April 23, 1863
*USMA appointment, 1836, left after one year because of illness. *Seminole War.*Captain, Georgia militia.
*Colonel, 2nd Artillery, Georgia Militia, August 1861. *3rd Georgia Artillery Battalion, Lt. Colonel, October 8, 1861.
*In East Tennessee, then with Army of Tennessee.
Strahl, Otho French Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 28, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Born McConnelsville, Ohio. *Lawyer, Dyersburg. Tennessee at start of war.
*4th Tennessee Infantry, Captain, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, May 15, 1861, Colonel, April 24, 1862.
*Initial brigade command June 6, 1863. *Wounded at Atlanta, July 22, 1864. *Killed at Franklin, November 30, 1864, aged 33.
Taliaferro, William Booth Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 6, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *State legislator, 1850–1853. *Commanded Virginia militia at time of John Brown’s Harpers Ferry raid.
*Commanded forces in and around Norfolk, Virginia, April 18, 1861–April 26, 1861.
*Major General of Virginia militia, Virginia Provisional Army. *23rd Virginia Infantry, Colonel, May 1, 1861.
*Initial brigade command, September 8, 1861. *Severely wounded at Groveton. *Wounded at Fredericksburg.
*Paroled at Greensboro, May 2, 1865, as a major general but no record of his promotion to that grade has been found.
Tappan, James C. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 5, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Arkansas state legislator, 2 terms. *Circuit court judge. *13th Arkansas Infantry, Colonel, July 23, 1861.
Taylor, Richard Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: July 28, 1862
conf: September 27, 1862
Lieutenant General
rank: April 8, 1864
nom: May 14, 1864
conf: May 16, 1864
*Son of President and General Zachary Taylor. *Brother of Jefferson Davis’s first wife.
*Mexican–American War; father’s military secretary.
*State senator, 1856–1861. *9th Louisiana Infantry, Colonel, July 7, 1861. *Initial brigade command, July 1861.
*Defeated Nathaniel Banks at Mansfield during Red River Campaign. *Turned Banks back at Pleasant Hill.
*After lieutenant general promotion, assigned to Department of Alabama and Mississippi.
*Surrendered last Confederate forces east of the Mississippi River in May 1865.
Taylor, Thomas H.   See Incomplete Appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Terrill, James Barbour Brigadier General
rank, nom, conf:
May 31, 1864
posthumous
*VMI, 1858. *Major, 13th Virginia Infantry, May 23, 1861, Lt. Colonel, February 26, 1862, Colonel, May 15, 1863.
Brother of Union Brigadier General William R. Terrill, who was killed at Perryville. *Initial brigade command, May 5, 1864.
*Killed at Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia (Bethesda Church) during Overland Campaign, May 30, 1864, aged 26.
*Date of brigadier general appointment was June 1, 1864 to rank from May 31, 1864. *Buried by Union soldiers near where he fell.
Terry, William Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 19, 1864
conf: May 20, 1864
*4th Virginia Infantry, Lieutenant, April 26, 1861, Major April 22, 1862, Colonel, September 11, 1863.
*Wounded at Second Bull Run. *Wounded at Payne’s Farm, Spotsylvania, Winchester.
*Severely wounded at Fort Stedman, Virginia, March 25, 1865.
Terry, William R. Brigadier General
rank: May 31, 1864
nom, conf: June 10, 1864t of war.
*51st Virginia Cavalry, Captain, April 1861. *24th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, September 21, 1861. *Wounded at Williamsburg.
*Wounded seven times, including during Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg and at Dinwiddie Court House near Petersburg.
Thomas, Allen Brigadier General
rank: February 4, 1864
nom: February 11, 1864
conf: February 17, 1864
*Colonel of Louisiana militia. *29th Louisiana Infantry, Major, July 1861, Colonel, May 3, 1862. *Initial brigade command, December 1862.
*Captured, paroled at Vicksburg, exchanged. *Assigned to gather and organize paroled prisoners in the west.
*Assigned to his brother-in-law’s, Lt. General Richard Taylor’s, department. *Commanded division after de Polignac departed for Europe.
Thomas, Bryan Morel   See incomplete appointments section in List of American Civil War Generals (Acting Confederate).
Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Thomas, Edward Lloyd Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 1, 1862
conf: February 17, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *35th Georgia Infantry, Colonel, October 15, 1861. *Initial brigade command, May 31, 1862.
*Wounded at Mechanicsville. *Fought in every major battle of Army of Northern Virginia, except Antietam.
Tilghman, Lloyd Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 18, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1836. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, September 30, 1836. *Mexican–American War.
*3rd Kentucky Infantry, Colonel, July 5, 1861. *Surrendered Fort Henry, Tennessee to U. S. Grant in February 1862.
*Prisoner of war until exchanged for John F. Reynolds, August 15, 1862. *Killed at Champion Hill, Mississippi, May 16, 1863, aged 47.
Toombs, Robert A. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 19, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
*Lawyer, 1830. *Fought in Creek War, 1836–1837. *Georgia State legislator.
*United States Congressman, March 4, 1845–March 3, 1853 and United States Senator, March 4, 1853–February 4, 1861.
*Almost chosen Confederate President. *Confederate Secretary of State until July 19, 1861 when appointed brigadier general.
*Wounded at Burnside’s Bridge at Antietam. *Resigned March 4, 1863. *Vocal critic of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
*Georgia Militia, 3rd Cavalry, Colonel, August 4, 1863– February 6, 1864.
*Brigadier General, Georgia Militia during Sherman’s March to the Sea, February 6, 1864–December 1864.
Toon, Thomas F. Brigadier General
(temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom, conf: June 2, 1864
Reverted to Colonel
August 1864
*20th North Carolina Infantry Private, May 20, 1861, 1st Lieutenant, June 17, 1861, Captain, July 19, 1861,
Major, June 1862, Colonel, February 26, 1863.
*Led regiment in Jackson’s flank attack at Chancellorsville.
*Commanded brigade in Valley Campaign of 1864 and at Battle of Monocacy.
*Wounded seven times, most severely at Fort Stedman, Virginia, March 25, 1865.
*Reverted to rank of colonel when General R. D. Johnston returned to his command of the brigade in August 1864.
Tracy, Edward D. Brigadier General
rank, nom: August 16, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
*4th Alabama Infantry, Captain, January 1861, of a Madison County company. *19th Alabama Infantry, Lt. Colonel, October 12, 1861.
*Initial brigade command, June 29, 1862. *Horse killed under him at Shiloh. *Sent to Vicksburg early in 1863.
*Killed at Port Gibson, Mississippi, May 1, 1863, aged 29.
Trapier, James H. Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1838, 3rd in class. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, February 28, 1848. *Colonel, aide, South Carolina Militia.
*With Beauregard in construction of batteries in Charleston Harbor. *Engineer, April 1861–November 1861.
*Major and assistant quartermaster, June 19, 1861. *Assigned to command District of Eastern and Middle Florida.
*Commanded a division at Second Corinth. *Criticized by Florida State convention and by Braxton Bragg.
*Held inferior posts in South Carolina until end of war. *Died December 21, 1865, Georgetown, South Carolina, aged 50.
Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway Brigadier General
nom: August 6, 1861
rank, conf: August 9, 1861
Major General
rank: January 17, 1863
nom, conf: January 23, 1863
**USMA, 1822. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 31, 1832, to work in railroad development as construction engineer.
*Burned bridges north of Baltimore at the outbreak of the Civil War.
*Colonel of engineers in State forces, building defenses of Norfolk, Virginia, May 25, 1861. *Severely wounded at Second Bull Run.
*Lost a leg and was captured during Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.
*Not exchanged until February 1865 because of knowledge of northern railroads. *Unable to rejoin army before surrender.
Tucker, William F. Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1864
nom: March 7, 1864
conf: May 11, 1864
*Probate judge. *11th Mississippi Infantry, Captain, May 13, 1861.
*Company transferred to 41st Mississippi Infantry, Colonel, May 8, 1862.
*Wounded at Perryville. *Severely wounded at Resaca, Georgia, May 14, 1864; incapacitated for further field duty.
*Commanded District of Southern Mississippi and East Louisiana at end of war.
Twiggs, David Emanuel
“Horse”, “Bengal Tiger”,
“Tiger”
Major General
rank, nom: May 22, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
*8th United States Infantry Regiment, Captain, March 12, 1812. *War of 1812. *Mexican–American War.
*Promoted to brigadier general and brevet major general for Mexican–American War service.
*One of the four general officers of the line in the pre–Civil War U.S. Army.
*Surrendered U.S. Army forces and military stores in Texas before the beginning of the Civil War.
*For this reason was dismissed for treason from the U.S. Army on March 1, 1861.
*Assigned to command District of Louisiana, but on October 11, 1861 was retired due to infirmities.
Vance, Robert Brank Brigadier General
rank: March 4, 1863
nom: March 9, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*Older brother of North Carolina Governor and U.S. Senator Zebulon Vance. *29th North Carolina Infantry: Colonel, April 24, 1861.
*In East Tennessee in defense of Cumberland Gap; in Kentucky Campaign.
*Contracted yellow fever. *Initial brigade command, January 1, 1863.
*As brigadier general, assigned to duty in western North Carolina. *Captured at Crosby Creek, North Carolina, January 14, 1864.
*Special parole for prisoner exchange, 1864. *Exchanged and final parole: March 10, 1865.
Van Dorn, Earl “Buck” Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 5, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank, nom: September 19, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*USMA, 1842, 52nd of 56. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Wounded by Indians, October 1, 1858.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, January 31, 1861. *Brigadier general, then major general, Mississippi militia.
*1st Regular Cavalry, Colonel, April 11, 1861. *Commander of Confederate Army of the West.
*Defeated at Pea Ridge. *Transferred to Army of Mississippi at Vicksburg. *Defeated at Second Corinth.
*Relieved by John C. Pemberton. *Destroyed Grant’s supply depots at Holly Springs, Mississippi, December 1862.
*Killed by Dr. James Bodie Peters, May 7, 1863, who alleged Van Dorn “violated the sanctity of his home”, Spring Hill, Tennessee, aged 42.
Vaughan, Alfred Jefferson Jr. Brigadier General
rank: November 18, 1863
nom: November 21, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*VMI, 1851. *13th Tennessee Infantry: Captain, May 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 7, 1861, Colonel, December 4, 1861. *Wounded at Shiloh.
*Wounded, lost leg at Vining Station, Georgia during Atlanta Campaign.
Vaughn, John C. Brigadier General
rank: September 22, 1862
nom: September 26, 1862
conf: October 3, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *3rd Tennessee Infantry: Colonel, May 3, 1861.
*Captured at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged October 13, 1863. *Commanded cavalry brigade during Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1864).
*With Jubal Early in march on Washington. *Wounded twice at Martinsburg, West Virginia.
*Brigade formed part of Jefferson Davis’s escort in flight south after fall of Richmond. *Paroled May 9, 1865, Washington, Georgia.
Walker, Henry Harrison
“Mud”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 1, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*USMA, 1853. *Served in Kansas. *Resigned as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 3, 1861.
*40th Virginia Infantry, Lt. Colonel, November 1861. *Twice wounded at Gaines Mill. *Wounded, lost left foot, at Spotsylvania.
Walker, James Alexander
“Bulldog”, “Stonewall Jim”
Brigadier General
rank: May 15, 1863
nom: May 16, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*Dismissed from VMI as a senior, 1852; charges by Stonewall Jackson. *Pulaski County, Virginia, militia Captain.
*13th Virginia Infantry, Lt. Colonel, May 17, 1861, Colonel, February 26, 1862.
*Initial brigade command, June 8, 1862. *Wounded at Antietam. *Badly wounded at Spotsylvania. *Railroad defenses in Virginia.
Walker, John George Brigadier General
nom: December 9, 1861
rank, conf: January 9, 1862
Major General
rank:, nom: November 8, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*U.S. Army commission, 1846. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, July 31, 1861.
*8th Texas Cavalry: Lt. Colonel, August 1861, Colonel, September 1861. *Wounded at Antietam.
*Command of a division in District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.
Walker, Leroy Pope Brigadier General
rank:, nom: September 17, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
*State legislator; judge of circuit court. *Brigadier general, Alabama militia.
*First Confederate Secretary of War; resigned September 16, 1861. *Garrison command at Mobile, Alabama and Montgomery, Alabama.
*Resigned as brigadier general March 31, 1862. *Presided over military court, April 6, 1864 until end of war as a colonel.
Walker, Lucius M. Brigadier General
rank:, nom: March 11, 1862
conf: April 11, 1862
*USMA, 1850. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, March 31, 1852. *40th Tennessee Infantry: Lt. Colonel, October 1861;
Colonel, November 11, 1861. *Transferred to Trans–Mississippi Department under E. Kirby Smith.
*Cavalry brigade command in Price’s Helena, Arkansas raid.
*Killed in a duel with Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke, who questioned Walker’s courage, on September 6, 1863, aged 33.
Walker, Reuben Lindsay
“Rube”
Brigadier General
rank: February 18, 1865
nom: February 24, 1865
conf: March 1, 1865
*VMI, 1845. *Artillery Captain, May 1861; Major, March 31, 1862. *Fought in 63 battles.
*Lt. Colonel, July 3, 1862, Colonel, March 14, 1863. *A.P. Hill’s chief of artillery.
Walker, William H.T.
“Shot Pouch”, “Fighting Billy”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: February 9, 1863
conf: March 2, 1863
Major General
rank: May 23, 1863
nom: June 27, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*USMA, 1837. *Wounded in Seminole Wars, *Gravely wounded in Mexican–American War.
*Commandant of USMA, July 31, 1854–May 22, 1856.
*Resigned as Major and Brevet Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army, December 20, 1860. *Georgia Militia.
*Brigadier general in Confederate Army, May 25, 1861.
*Resigned October 29, 1861. *Commissioned major general of Georgia state troops.
*Recommissioned brigadier general, CSA, February 9, 1863, then major general, May 23, 1863.
*In Vicksburg campaign with Joseph E. Johnston. *Commanded Reserve Corps at Chickamauga.
*Killed by a picket of Union Army’s 16th Corps at Atlanta, July 22, 1864, aged 47.
Walker, William Stephen
“Live Oak”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 30, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
*Mexican–American War; mustered out August 31, 1848.
*Commissioned Captain, 1st U. S. Cavalry Regiment, 1855. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, May 1, 1861.
*Aide to Robert E. Lee, November 5, 1861–December 1861.
*Colonel and acting Inspector General of Department of South Carolina and Georgia.
*Wounded, captured at Ware Bottom Church, Virginia, May 20, 1864, foot amputated. *Exchanged October 29, 1864.
Wallace, William Henry Brigadier General
(temporary)
rank, nom: September 30, 1864
conf: September 21, 1864
*South Carolina state legislator, 1860.
*18th South Carolina Infantry, Private, January 1861; Lieutenant, January 1862, Captain, January 1862, Lt. Colonel, May 5, 1862,
Colonel, August 30, 1862. *Wallace succeeded colonel killed at Second Bull Run, but not nominated to rank until June 10, 1864.
*Fought at the Crater, July 30, 1864, initial brigade command.
Walthall, Edward Cary Brigadier General
rank: December 12, 1862
nom: December 23, 1862
conf: April 23, 1863
Major General (temporary)
rank: June 6, 1864
nom: June 9, 1864
conf: June 10, 1864
*15th Mississippi Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, April 27, 1861, Lt. Colonel, July 21, 1861.
*29th Mississippi Infantry, Colonel, April 11, 1862.
*Wounded at “Battle Above the Clouds” at Chattanooga, captured and exchanged.
*Wounded at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864.
*Two horses killed under him, wounded at Franklin. *Commanded rear guard from Nashville.
Waterhouse, Richard Brigadier General
rank March 17, 1865
nom, conf: March 18, 1865
*Mexican–American War. *19th Texas Infantry: Colonel, May 13, 1862. *In Trans–Mississippi Department at
Milliken’s Bend, Mansfield, Pleasant Hill. *Assigned to command as brigadier general to date from April 30, 1864 by E. Kirby Smith.
*Officially appointed to rank from March 17, 1865 by Jefferson Davis.
Watie, Stand Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 6, 1864
conf: May 10, 1864
*Planter in Georgia, published Cherokee newspaper. *Signed treaty agreeing to removal of Cherokee from Georgia, 1835; split tribe.
*Leader of a minority faction of the Cherokees in Oklahoma in allegiance to the Confederacy.
*Captain, CSA, April, 1861. *1st (officially 2nd) Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Colonel, July 12, 1861.
*Captured various Union Army supply trains, especially at Cabin Creek, Indian Territory, September 19, 1864.
*Last Confederate general to surrender, June 23, 1865.
Waul, Thomas Neville Brigadier General
rank: September 18, 1863
nom: September 19, 1863
conf: June 10, 1864
*Elected to Provisional Confederate Congress from Texas, February 19, 1861–February 17, 1862.
*Recruited Waul’s Texas Legion, Colonel, May 17, 1862.
*Surrendered at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged October 16, 1863 (Warner: September 18, 1863).
*Fought in Red River campaign and against Camden Expedition. *Wounded at Jenkins’ Ferry.
*Died July 28, 1903, Hunt County, near Greenville, Texas, aged 90.
Wayne, Henry C. Brigadier General
rank, nom: December 16, 1861
conf: December 24, 1861
*USMA, 1838. *4th Artillery; transferred to quartermaster department, 1846. *Mexican–American War.
*Tested camels as means of army transportation in the southwestern U.S.
*Resigned as Captain and Brevet Major, U.S. Army, December 31, 1860. *Adjutant and Inspector General of State of Georgia.
*Resigned brigadier general appointment after three weeks; on January 7, 1862, four days after being ordered to Manassas Junction.
*On January 11, 1862 returned to former position as adjutant and inspector general of Georgia Militia until end of the war.
*Directly in command of Georgia Militia until relieved by G. W. Smith.
Weisiger, David A. Brigadier General
rank: July 30, 1864
nom: November 1, 1864
conf: February 3, 1865
*Mexican–American War. *Officer of the day in Virginia militia at hanging of John Brown in 1859.
*4th Virginia Militia Battalion, Major, April 1861. *12th Virginia Infantry: Colonel, May 9, 1861.
*Wounded, disabled from Second Bull Run to following July. *Along with Mahone, Waul led successful
counterattack at the Crater at Petersburg, Virginia, July 30, 1864. *Wounded at the Crater.
Wharton, Gabriel Colvin
“Gabe”
Brigadier General
rank: July 8, 1863
nom: September 25, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
*VMI, 1847, 2nd in class. *45th Virginia Infantry, Major, July 1861. *59th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, August 1861.
*Escaped with Floyd from Fort Donelson in February 1862, then transferred east.
*Command overwhelmed and dispersed at Waynesboro, Virginia, March 1865.
Wharton, John A. Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 18, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General
rank: November 10, 1863
nom: November 12, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Member of Texas secession convention. *Captain in Terry’s Texas Rangers, 8th Texas Cavalry, February 1861.
*Colonel, November 13, 1861, after deaths of Terry, Lubbock. *Wounded at Shiloh. *Initial brigade command September 27, 1862.
*Wounded at Stone’s River. *Killed at Houston, Texas by Colonel George W. Baylor, 2nd Texas Cavalry, on April 6, 1865, aged 36.
*Baylor stated the unarmed Wharton slapped him and called him a liar.
Wheeler, Joseph
“Little Joe”, “Fightin’ Joe”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 30, 1862
conf: April 22, 1863
Major General
rank: January 20, 1863
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: February 4, 1864
*USMA, 1859. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, April 22, 1861. *1st Lieutenant of artillery.
*19th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, September 4, 1861. *Fought at Shiloh.
*Chief of cavalry of the Army of Mississippi, July 13, 1862, and the Army of Tennessee.
*Initial brigade command, September 14, 1862. *Wounded three times.
*In Carolinas Campaign; succeeded by Wade Hampton III as command became increasingly undisciplined.
*U.S. Congressman, 1882–1900. *Major general of U.S. Volunteers in the Spanish–American War.
*Retired as brigadier general in the U.S. Army. *One of two Confederate generals buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
Whitfield, John Wilkins Brigadier General
rank, nom: May 9, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Mexican–American War. *Congressional delegate from Kansas Territory, 1857.
*27th Texas Cavalry, Captain, July 1861, Major, September 1861, Colonel, March 1, 1862.
*Wounded at Iuka. *Commanded a brigade under W. H. Jackson in Mississippi. *Without a command later in the war.
Whiting, William Henry Chase
“Little Billy”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 21, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: February 28, 1863
nom: March 5, 1863
conf: April 22, 1863
*USMA, 1845. *Highest grades at West Point to that time. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, February 20, 1861.
*Joined Joseph E. Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah as chief engineer; arranged troop transfer to First Bull Run.
*After Malvern Hill, developed Fort Fisher, North Carolina. *Briefly at Siege of Petersburg.
*Severely wounded, taken prisoner at Second Fort Fisher, January 15, 1865.
*Died of wounds, March 10, 1865, at Fort Columbus, New York Harbor, aged 40.
Wickham, Williams Carter Brigadier General
rank: September 1, 1863
nom: September 2, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*Elected to Virginia House of Delegates, 1849, Virginia Senate, 1859. *Virginia Militia.
*4th Virginia Cavalry: Captain, April 1861, Lt. Colonel, September 1861, Colonel, August 1862. *Captured at Ashland, Virginia, May 29, 1862.
*Exchanged for Thomas L. Kane, August 15, 1862. *Wounded at Williamsburg and during Maryland campaign.
*Remained with army until fall 1864 despite being elected to Second Regular Confederate Congress after Chancellorsville.
*Resigned November 9, 1864 to take seat in Confederate Congress.
Wigfall, Louis Trezevant Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
conf: December 30, 1861
*Seminole War. *Fire-eater Secessionist from 1844. *Served in both houses of Texas legislature.
*U.S. Senate, December 5, 1859–withdrew March 23, 1861, expelled July 11, 1861. *Helped defeat Crittenden Compromise.
*At Fort Sumter, tried to separately negotiate surrender with Major Anderson. *1st Texas Infantry, Colonel, August 28, 1861.
*Commanded Texas Brigade. *Resigned February 20, 1862 to take seat in the Confederate Senate. *Supported Joseph E. Johnston.
*Worked to undermine Jefferson Davis. *Responsible for bill making Robert E. Lee General in Chief of all Confederate forces.
Wilcox, Cadmus Marcellus
“Billy Fixin'”
Brigadier General
rank, nom: October 21, 1861
conf: December 13, 1861
Major General
rank: August 3, 1863
nom. *August 13, 1863
conf: January 25, 1864
*USMA, 1846. *Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 8, 1861.
*At all major battles of Army of Northern Virginia from First Bull Run.
*9th Alabama Infantry, Colonel, July 9, 1861. *Defense of Fort Gregg at Petersburg, Virginia on April 2, 1865.
*Defense allowed the Confederate Army to escape from Petersburg and Richmond.
Williams, John Stuart “Cerro Gordo” Brigadier General
rank, nom: April 16, 1862
conf: April 18, 1862
*Mexican–American War. *Kentucky legislator, 1851–1855. *5th Kentucky Infantry Regiment, Captain, April 1861,
Lt. Colonel, September 1861, Colonel, August 1862, November 16, 1861. *Commanded Department of East Tennessee in Fall 1863.
*Helped defeat Union attack on salt works at Saltville, near Abingdon, Virginia. *Later with Wheeler and in southwestern Virginia.
Wilson, Claudius C. Brigadier General
rank: November 16, 1863
nom: November 18, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
(posthumous)
*Captain, Company I, 25th Georgia Infantry, August 9, 1861, Colonel, September 2, 1861.
*Served along South Carolina and Georgia coasts. *With Joseph E. Johnston in Vicksburg campaign.
*Commanded a brigade at Chickamauga. *Died from camp fever at Ringgold, Georgia, November 27, 1863, aged 32.
*Posthumously confirmed as brigadier general by Confederate Senate, February 17, 1864.
Winder, Charles Sidney Brigadier General
rank: March 1, 1862
nom: March 5, 1862
conf: March 7, 1862
*USMA, 1850. *Youngest Captain in U.S. Army at the time, March 3, 1855, for heroism on a troop ship in a hurricane.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, April 1, 1861.
*6th South Carolina Infantry: Colonel, July 8, 1861. *Led the Stonewall Brigade in Jackson’s Valley Campaign of 1862.
*Fought in the Seven Days Battles. *Killed at Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862, aged 32.
Winder, John H. Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 21, 1861
conf. *June 28, 1861
reappointed
nom. *June 6, 1864
conf: June 10, 1864
*USMA, 1820. *Wounded in Mexican–American War. *Resigned as Major and Brevet Lt. Colonel, 3rd U.S. Artillery, April 27, 1861.
*Provost marshal in Richmond, Virginia. *Appointed commissary general of prisoners, November 21, 1864.
*Died at Florence, South Carolina, February 7, 1865, aged 64.
*Accused by Northern press and public of starving Union prisoners of war; had to deal with food shortages and transport problems.
Wise, Henry A. Brigadier General
rank: June 5, 1861
nom: June 5, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
also February 17, 1864
*U.S. Representative from Virginia, elected 1833. *Minister to Brazil, 1844–1847.
*Governor of Virginia, January 1, 1856–January 1, 1860. *Brother-in-law of Union Army Major General George G. Meade.
*Fought in West Virginia campaign, in North Carolina, in defense of Charleston, South Carolina, in Florida,
at Drewry’s Bluff, in defense of Richmond.
Withers, Jones M. Brigadier General
rank, nom: July 10, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
Major General
rank: April 6, 1862
nom: August 16, 1862
conf: September 22, 1862
*USMA, 1835. *Resigned as Brevet 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, December 5, 1835 to study law.
*Fought in Creek uprising. *Mexican–American War.
*Colonel of 9th U.S. Infantry. *Resigned from U.S. Army again after Mexican–American War.
*Mayor of Mobile, Alabama, before and after the war.
*3rd Alabama Infantry, Colonel. *Defense of Mobile. *Led 2 brigades at Shiloh.
*In August 1863 until end of war in charge of reserve forces in Alabama.
Wofford, William T. Brigadier General
rank: January 17, 1865
nom: January 23, 1863
conf: April 23, 1863
*Mexican–American War. *Georgia state legislator, 1849–1853.
*Voted against secession at Georgia convention. *18th Georgia Infantry: Colonel, April 25, 1861.
Wood, Sterling A.M. Brigadier General
rank: January 7, 1862
nom: January 9, 1862
conf: January 7, 1862
*Alabama state legislator, 1857. *Editor of Florence Gazette. *7th Alabama Infantry, Colonel, May 18, 1861.
*Badly wounded at Perryville. *Fought at Stones River and Chickamauga under Major General Patrick Cleburne.
*Not mentioned in Cleburne’s report on Chickamauga but other brigade commanders praised. *Resigned October 17, 1863.
Wright, Ambrose Ransom “Rans” Brigadier General
rank, nom: June 3, 1862
conf: September 30, 1862
Major General (temporary)
rank:, nom: November 26, 1864
conf: November 30, 1864
*3rd Georgia Infantry, Colonel, May 18, 1861. *Badly wounded at Antietam, September 17, 1862. *Wounded at Chancellorsville.
*With Army of Northern Virginia until November 1864. *In command in Georgia until end of war.
York, Zebulon Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: May 31, 1864
nom: conf: June 2, 1864
*14th Louisiana Infantry, Captain, April 1861, Major, September 2, 1861, Lt. Colonel, February 19, 1862, Colonel, October 3, 1862.
*Wounded at Williamsburg, Second Bull Run. *Lost left arm at Opequon or Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864.
*Recruited for C.S.A. among foreign born prisoners of war.
Young, Pierce Manning Butler Brigadier General
rank: September 28, 1863
nom: October 10, 1863
conf: February 17, 1864
Major General (temporary)
nom: December 29, 1864
rank: December 30, 1864
conf: January 28, 1865
*USMA, resigned before 1861 graduation. *Cobb’s legion: 1st Lieutenant, July 24, 1861, Major, September 3, 1861,
Lt. Colonel, November 15, 1861, commander of cavalry. *Distinguished in Wade Hampton III’s brigade in Maryland campaign.
*Cobb’s Legion, Colonel, November 1, 1862. *Commanded Hampton’s old division for part of 1864. *Wounded four times.
*Wounded and captured at Allatoona, Georgia, October 5, 1864; exchanged.
*Resisted Sherman’s advance on Augusta, Georgia and then through the Carolinas.
Zollicoffer, Felix Kirk “Zollie” Brigadier General
rank:, nom: July 9, 1861
conf: August 28, 1861
*Lieutenant of volunteers, Seminole war of 1836.
*Adjutant general, state comptroller, Tennessee state senator.
*U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee, March 4, 1853–March 3, 1859; declined to run for fourth term.
*Brigadier general, Tennessee Militia, May 9, 1861.
*Contrary to Albert Sidney Johnston’s instructions, moved forces to Kentucky side of Cumberland River before George B. Crittenden’s force arrived.
*Crittenden had to attack the approaching Union force with his force against the river.
*Zollicoffer killed during ensuing Battle of Mill Springs (or Fishing Creek or Logan’s Cross Roads), January 19, 1862, aged 49.
Assigned to duty by E. Kirby Smith

After the fall of Vicksburg, communication between the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department and the Confederate government in Richmond was slow and difficult. The commander of the department, General E. Kirby Smith, appointed several officers to duty as brigadier generals and as major generals. He tried to get President Jefferson Davis to formally appoint these officers and nominate them to the Confederate Senate for approval. While Davis did appoint some of Smith’s earlier nominees, at least nine officers who were appointed by Smith late in the war and may have served in the capacity of generals for a period of time were never appointed and confirmed by the civilian authorities. The nine acting generals assigned to duty by General Smith listed below are in this category. One of them, Horace Randal, was killed in action while commanding a brigade at the Battle of Jenkins’ Ferry under the overall command of General Smith.

Name Rank Notes
Bagby, Arthur Pendleton Jr. Colonel *Resigned as 2nd lieutenant, U.S. Army, September 30, 1853. *7th Texas Cavalry: Major, October 12, 1861, Lt. Colonel, April 4, 1862, Colonel, November 15, 1862. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, March 17, 1864 and major general, May 16, 1865 (to rank from May 10), by E. Kirby Smith. *Wounded at Berwick Bay, April 13, 1863. *Died February 21, 1921, Hallettsville, Texas, aged 87.
DeBray, Xavier Colonel *Born Epinee, France, January 25, 1818. *St. Cyr graduate. *4th Texas Infantry: 1st Lieutenant, 1861, major, September 2, 1861. *7th Texas Cavalry: Lt. Colonel, December 7, 1861. *26th Texas Cavalry, Colonel, March 17, 1862. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, April 13, 1864, by E. Kirby Smith.
Gordon, Benjamin Franklin Colonel *Mexican–American War. *Missouri State Guard, Lieutenant, 1861. *Wounded at Wilson’s Creek. *5th Missouri Cavalry: Major, 1862, Lt. Colonel, September 9, 1862, Colonel, December 15, 1862. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, May 16, 1865, by E. Kirby Smith.
Jackman, Sidney Drake Colonel *Missouri militia, lieutenant, then captain. *7th Missouri Infantry, Colonel, 1862. *16th Missouri Infantry, Colonel, August 31, 1862. *Jackman’s Missouri Cavalry, Colonel, September 1864. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, May 16, 1865, by E. Kirby Smith.
King, Wilburn Hill Colonel *Missouri militia, Sergeant, 1861, Lieutenant, 1861. *3rd Missouri State Guard, Captain, CSA, 1861. *Wounded at Wilson’s Creek, August 10, 1861. *Resigned 1861 and returned to Texas. *18th Texas Infantry: Private, 1861, Major, May 13, 1862, Lt. Colonel, February 25, 1863, Colonel, August 10, 1863. *Initial brigade command, 1863. *Wounded at Mansfield, Louisiana, April 8, 1864. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, April 16, 1864, by E. Kirby Smith.
Lewis, Levin Major Colonel *Missouri militia, Captain, 1861. *3rd Missouri Militia Cavalry, Colonel, March 24, 1861. *Mustered out, May 1862. *Aide to Earl Van Dorn, March 1862. *7th Missouri Infantry: Captain, June 18, 1862. *16th Missouri Infantry: Major, 186. *Wounded at Lone Jack, Missouri, August 16, 1862. *7th Missouri Infantry, Lt. Colonel, December 4, 1862, Colonel, March 4, 1863. *Wounded and captured at Helena Arkansas, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged September 1864. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, May 16, 1865, by E. Kirby Smith.
Maclay, Robert Plunket Major *USMA, 1840. *Wounded Resaca de la Palma, Texas, May 9, 1846 (start of Mexican–American War). *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, December 31, 1860. *Louisiana militia, Major, December 16, 1861. *Major of artillery, October 31, 1862. *Assistant Adjutant General and Commissary of Subsistence of Walker’s Division, 1863. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, May 13, 1864 to date from April 30, 1864, by E. Kirby Smith. *Not nominated.
Randal, Horace Colonel *USMA, 1854. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, February 27, 1861. *Private, Virginia Infantry, 1861. *Captain CSA 1861, resigned June 1861. *1st Lieutenant and aide to brother-in-law, Gustavus W. Smith, November 16, 1861. *Assistant inspector general, Smith’s Corp, Army of Northern Virginia, 1861–1862. *28th Texas Cavalry (dismounted), Colonel, February 18, 1861. *Initial brigade command, September 28, 1862, Trans–Mississippi Department. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, April 8, 1864, by E. Kirby Smith. *Appointment revoked by Jefferson Davis. *Mortally wounded at Jenkins’ Ferry, April 30, 1864. *Died of wounds, May 2, 1864, aged 31 or 33.
Terrell, Alexander Watkins Colonel *Captain, aide to Henry E. McCulloch. *Resigned January 1862. *1st Texas Cavalry: Captain, 1862, Major, 1862, Lt. Colonel, March 31, 1862, Colonel, June 12, 1862. *Arizona and New Mexico Cavalry Battalion, Lt. Colonel, June 8, 1863. *34th Texas Cavalry, Colonel, June 20, 1863. *Assigned to duty as brigadier general, May 10, 1865, by E. Kirby Smith. *Fled to Mexico. *Colonel, Mexican Army, July 1865; resigned November 1865.
Incomplete appointments, unconfirmed appointments, refused appointments, posthumous appointments or undelivered commissions

 

The following Confederate officers are often referred to in historical writings as generals but their appointments were never completed or confirmed or their commissions were not properly delivered.[1] The appointments of a few were withdrawn before they were voted upon by the Confederate Senate. Some of the officers’ appointments were nominated to but not confirmed by the Confederate Senate. Some of the officers’ commissions as generals were not delivered until after they had died. In a few cases, promotions of officers to general officer grades were posthumous even as early as the dates of appointment or nomination and clearly were meant only to be tokens of respect or honor. Other general officer commissions remained undelivered when the war ended. At least two general officer appointments that appear in the historical record were unauthorized battlefield appointments which were not approved and confirmed by the civil authorities as the war was coming to a close. Nonetheless, these officers are notable because of their assignments or actions in the capacity of a general, almost always a brigadier general. The Eichers call most or all such officers “might-have-beens.” About 24 of the officers in the alphabetical tables above are shown by Warner and Wright as full grade general officers but in fact their appointments, confirmations or commissions were incomplete or they died or the war ended before they received their commissions. The entries for these officers will be moved to the section below as the article is completed.

Ashby, Henry Marshall Colonel *Captain, 4th Tennessee Battalion, July 4, 1861. *2nd Tennessee Cavalry, Colonel, May 24, 1862.
*Wounded 1862. *First brigade command, June 1864.
*Commissioned a brigadier general in April 1865 while commanding a division in Joseph Wheeler’s corps.
*Commission never delivered.
Ashby, Turner Colonel
Brigadier General
May 23, 1862
unconfirmed at death
*7th Virginia Cavalry: Captain, April 18, 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 25, 1861, Colonel, March 12, 1862.
*Commanded cavalry in Jackson’s Valley Campaign of 1862.
*Killed fighting a rear guard action against Union Army pursuing Stonewall Jackson’s
forces at Good’s Farm, near Harrisonburg, Virginia, June 6, 1862, aged 33.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Barry, John D. Colonel
Brigadier General
appointed August 2, 1864
unconfirmed
canceled a few days later
*North Carolina militia, Private, June 15, 1861.
*18th North Carolina Infantry: Private, November 14, 1861, Captain, April 1862, Major, November 11, 1862, Colonel, May 3, 1863.
*Wounded 4 times. *Regiment in Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg.
*Appointed Brigadier General, August 2, 1864, when Brigadier General J. H. Lane wounded at Cold Harbor.
*Lane returned in a few days, Barry was wounded and disabled and his appointment canceled.
*Died March 24, 1867, Wilmington, North Carolina, aged 27.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Bartow, Francis Stebbins Colonel
Brigadier General
posthumous
*Georgia legislator. *Georgia militia, Captain, 1856. *CSA Provisional Congress from Georgia, February 7, 1861–July 21, 1861.
*8th Georgia Infantry, Captain, May 21, 1861, Colonel, June 1, 1861.
*Brigade command in Army of the Shenandoah, June 1861–July 21, 1861.
*Killed at First Bull Run while commanding two of his brigade’s regiments, July 21, 1861, aged 44.
*Confederate Congress awarded him the posthumous rank of acting brigadier general.
Benton, Samuel Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: July 26, 1864
died before commission
received
*State legislator. *Mississippi secession convention delegate.
*9th Mississippi Infantry, 12-month regiment: Captain, April 1861.
*37th (later 34th) Mississippi Infantry: Colonel, April 1862. *Mortally wounded, Battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864.
*Died July 28, 1864 at Griffin, Georgia, before receiving commission as brigadier general to rank from July 26, 1864.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Bowles, Pinckney Downie Colonel *South Carolina Military Institute (The Citadel predecessor). *Colonel Alabama Militia, 1860.
*4th Alabama Infantry: Captain, April 1, 1861, Major, August 22, 1862, Lt. Colonel, September 30, 1862, Colonel October 3, 1862.
*Temporary commands of brigade or brigade sized units starting January 7, 1865.
*No record ever promoted to or confirmed as brigadier general. *Some sources claim commissioned brigadier general on April 2, 1865.
*This date was after Confederate Senate adjourned for last time.
Brevard, Jr. Theodore W. Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: March 22, 1865
nom: March 28, 1865
unconfirmed
*2nd Florida Battalion (Partisan Rangers): Captain, July 13, 1861, Major, August 14, 1862, Lt. Colonel, June 24, 1863,
Colonel, June 11, 1864. *11th Florida Infantry: Colonel.
*Last general officer Jefferson Davis appointed, March 28, 1865, to rank from March 22, 1865.
*Unconfirmed, Confederate Senate last met March 18, 1865. *Captured, Sayler’s Creek.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Browne, William Montague
“Constitution”
Colonel
Brigadier General
temporary rank:
from November 11, 1864
unconfirmed: rejected
*Born 1823, Dublin, Ireland. *Crimean War veteran. *Emigrated to U.S. in 1855, Georgia in 1861.
*Aide to Jefferson Davis with rank of colonel of cavalry. *Interim Confederate Secretary of State, March 18–27, 1862.
*Briefly commanded brigade in defense of Savannah.
*Nomination as brigadier general (temporary), November 11, 1864, rejected by Confederate Senate, February 18, 1865.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Cobb, Thomas Reade Rootes Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: November 1, 1862
unconfirmed: died
*Provisional Confederate Congress, February 1861.
*Recruited Cobb’s Legion, Colonel, August 28, 1861. *During the war, served in Confederate Congress.
*Member of committee that drafted the Confederate constitution.
*Mortally wounded, sunken road at Fredericksburg. *Died December 13, 1862 at Fredericksburg.
*Brother of Major General Howell Cobb. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Dearing, James Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: April 29, 1864
not confirmed;
continued as brigade
commander
*USMA entered 1858; resigned April 22, 1861. *Confederate artillery, 1st Lieutenant, July 1861,
Captain, April 1862, Major, May 1862. *Major of artillery at Gettysburg. *8th Regular Cavalry, Colonel, April 1864.
*Brigadier general, April 29, 1864, not confirmed, continued to command cavalry brigade.
*Wounded at Jetersville, Virginia, April 5, 1865. *Mortally wounded at High Bridge, April 6, 1865, in pistol duel
with Union Lt. Colonel (Brevet Brigadier General) Theodore Read, who also was killed.
*Died April 23, 1865 at Lynchburg, Virginia. *Despite lack of Senate confirmation,
often identified as last Confederate general to die of wounds from battle.
*Warner lists as general; Eicher does not.
Deshler, James Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: July 28, 1863
not confirmed
*USMA, 1854. *Dropped as 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, as AWOL, July 15, 1861.
*Captain of artillery, Army of the Northwest, July 1861. *Brigade adjutant at Cheat Mountain.
*Shot at skirmish at Allegheny Summit, West Virginia, December 13, 1861. *Colonel, CSA, 1862, Artillery, April 1862.
*Chief of artillery for Theophilus Holmes during Seven Days Battles. *Accompanied Holmes to Trans–Mississippi Department.
*Captured commanding brigade at Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863; exchanged June 1863.
*Brigadier general to rank from July 28, 1863 not confirmed. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
*Killed by a shell at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863, aged 30.
Dunovant, John Colonel
Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: August 22, 1864
unconfirmed at death
*Mexican–American War, sergeant, Palmetto Regiment. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, December 29, 1860.
*Major of militia. *1st South Carolina Regulars in C.S.A., Colonel. *Cashiered for drunkenness.
*Soon appointed Colonel of 5th South Carolina Cavalry by Governor Pickens. *Regiment ordered to Virginia in 1864.
*Dunovant redeemed himself by his conduct. *Wounded at Haw’s Shop, Virginia, May 28, 1864.
*Appointed temporary brigadier general, August 22, 1864. *Killed during Siege of Petersburg, after capture of Fort Harrison,
during Battle of Chaffin’s Farm, in related fighting during Battle of Vaughan Road, October 1, 1864, aged 39.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Fauntleroy, Thomas Turner Brigadier General,
Provisional Army of Virginia
Major
Refused brigadier general
appointment
*Born Richmond County, Virginia, October 8, 1795. *War of 1812 veteran. *Virginia legislator.
*Major, U.S. Army, June 8, 1836. *Resigned as colonel, U.S. Army, May 13, 1861.
*Brigadier general of Virginia militia, May 18, 1861–October 8, 1861.
*General Samuel Cooper recommended appointment as brigadier general, July 9, 1861, but Fauntleroy refused the appointment.
*55th Virginia Infantry, Major, resigned August 30, 1861.
Fiser, John Calvin Colonel *17th Mississippi Infantry, 1st Lieutenant, May 27, 1861, 1st Lieutenant and Assistant Adjutant General, October 12, 1861,
Lt. Colonel, April 26, 1862. *Wounded at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg. *Lost right arm at Knoxville, November 29, 1863.
*Lt. Colonel February 12, 1864, Colonel February 26, 1864. *Resigned June 12, 1864.
*Commanded a brigade of Georgia reservists in the 1865 Carolinas Campaign.
*Appointment as brigadier general in the Confederate States Army never confirmed.
Frazer, John W. Colonel
Brigadier General
nom or appt: May 3, 1863
rank: May 19, 1863
unconfirmed
*USMA, 1849. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, March 15, 1861. *8th Alabama Infantry: Lt. Colonel, June 17, 1861.
*Resigned March 1862. *28th Alabama Infantry: Colonel, November 2, 1862.
*Brigadier general appointment unconfirmed. *Opposed Union Army occupation of East Tennessee.
*Surrendered to Union Major General Burnside when learned Knoxville occupied and Buckner in retreat.
*Captured at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, September 10, 1863. *Released July 24, 1865.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Garrott, Isham Warren Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: May 28, 1863
*Alabama legislator, 1845, 1847. *20th Alabama Infantry: Lt. Colonel, September 16, 1861, Colonel, October 8, 1861.
*At Mobile in 1861 and 1862. *Resisted Grant at Port Gibson, Baker’s Creek.
*Killed on the skirmish line at Vicksburg, June 17, 1863.
*Commission as brigadier general to rank from May 28, 1863 received at headquarters after his death. *Not confirmed.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Gilmer, Jeremy Francis Colonel
Major General
rank August 25, 1863
never confirmed
*USMA, 1839. *Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, June 29, 1861. *CSA Lt. Colonel of engineers. *Engineer, Department No. Two, September 30, 1861.
*Captured at Fort Henry but escaped the same day. *Chief engineer for Albert Sidney Johnston. *Wounded at Shiloh.
*Promoted to Regular Army (ACSA) Colonel of engineers, October 4, 1862. *Chief engineer of Department of Northern Virginia.
*Laid out defenses of Charleston, South Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Girardey, Victor J. B. Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: July 30, 1864
commissioned:
August 3, 1864
unconfirmed?
*Born June 26, 1837, Lauw, France. *Married Louisiana woman of French descent.
*1st Louisiana Infantry Battalion, 2nd Lieutenant, April 16, 1861, 1st Lieutenant and aide from Louisiana, October 12, 1861.
*Captain and assistant adjutant general for Ambrose R. Wright during Seven Days’ Battles until May 21, 1864; then on staff of
William Mahone. *Promoted four grades to Brigadier General with temporary rank from July 30, 1864 for organization of
defense of the Crater at Petersburg. *Eicher says not confirmed. *Warner lists as a general, says received commission August 3, 1864.
*Killed August 16, 1864 in command of brigade at Fussell’s Mill on Darbytown Road.
Godwin, Archibald C. Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: August 5, 1864
unconfirmed
*Major and assistant provost marshal in charge of prisons in Richmond, including Libby Prison. *57th North Carolina Infantry: Colonel, July 17, 1862.
*Wounded at Chancellorsville. *Captured at Rappahannock Bridge (Raccoon Ford), November 7, 1863. *Exchanged May 1864.
*Killed at Third Winchester (Battle of Opequon), September 19, 1864. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher says appointment unconfirmed.
Goggin, James M. Major
Brigadier General
rank: December 4, 1864
cancelled
unconfirmed
*USMA, did not graduate. *Served in army of Republic of Texas. *32nd Virginia Infantry: Major, July 1, 1861.
*Assistant adjutant general for Magruder, Kershaw for most of war. *Commanded James Conner’s brigade at Cedar Creek.
*Brigadier general appointment, rank from December 4, 1864, cancelled. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
*Returned to Kershaw’s staff. *Captured at Sayler’s Creek.
Hagan, James Colonel *Born County Tyrone, Ireland, June 17, 1822. *Emigrated to Pennsylvania; moved to Alabama, 1837.
*Captain, Texas Rangers, 1846. *Captain, U.S. Army Infantry, March 5, 1847, Third Dragoons, April 9, 1847, discharged July 31, 1848.
*Captain, Alabama militia. *1st Mississippi Cavalry, Major, October 29, 1861.
*3rd Alabama Cavalry, Colonel, July 1, 1862. *Initial brigade command, July 1863.
*Wounded November 1862, November 1863. *Resigned November 1863, resignation revoked 1864.
*Commanded cavalry brigade under Wheeler in late 1864, 1865. *Appointed acting brigadier general February or March, 1865;
referred to in official reports. *Not confirmed, commission never delivered. *Wounded at Monroe’s Crossroads, March 10, 1865.
Hannon, Moses Wright Colonel *1st Alabama Cavalry: Captain 1861, Lt. Colonel, October 29, 1861.
*53rd Alabama Cavalry (partisan rangers), Colonel, November 5, 1863. *Resigned December 16, 1863, resignation revoked.
*Acting brigadier general, 1864. *Wounded at Monroe’s Crossroads, North Carolina, March 10, 1865.
*Appointed brigadier general sometime between February 15 and March, 1865; referred to as such by Wheeler.
*Commission never delivered, paroled as a colonel.
Henderson, Robert Johnson Colonel *Pre-war judge, major Georgia militia, Georgia legislator.
*42nd Georgia Infantry, Colonel, March 20, 1862. *Captured at Vicksburg, exchanged.
*Wounded at Resaca, Georgia, May 13, 1864. *Initial brigade command March 1865.
*Promoted by Joseph E. Johnston to acting brigadier general, March, 1865 at Bentonville. *Not officially appointed or confirmed.
Hodge, George B. Colonel
Brigadier General
nominations rejected
paroled as brig. gen.
*United States Naval Academy, 1845. *Resigned from U.S. Navy in 1850. *Kentucky legislator.
*Enlisted as private, Kentucky militia, September 23, 1861.
*Captain, Assistant Adjutant General, November 16, 1861. *Elected to Confederate Congress; divided time with army.
*Breckenridge staff. *Promoted to colonel. *Led a cavalry brigade under Wheeler.
*In command of District of Southwest Mississippi and East Louisiana at end of war.
*Twice nominated as brigadier general; twice rejected by Confederate Senate.
*Paroled as brigadier general. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Johnson, Adam Rankin
“Stovepipe”
Colonel
Brigadier General
(not confirmed)
*Captain, Kentucky cavalry, October 1861. *Escaped from Fort Donelson with Floyd. *Colonel, 10th Kentucky Partisan Rangers.
*Attacked Newburgh, Indiana with 12 men, two stove pipes used as “Quaker cannons,” July 18, 1862.
*Escaped by swimming Ohio River when Morgan’s forces were surrounded.
*Appointed brigadier general September 6, 1864 to rank from June 1, 1864. *Not confirmed by Confederate Senate.
*Warner lists as a brigadier general; Eicher does not.
*Accidentally shot, blinded by own men in attack on Union camp at Grubbs Crossroads, near Princeton. Kentucky, August 21, 1864.
*Founded Marble Falls, Texas. *Died October 20, 1922, Burnet, Texas, aged 88.
Jones, John R. Lt. Colonel
Brigadier General
(not confirmed)
*VMI, 1848. *Florida militia. *33rd Virginia Infantry: Captain, June 22, 1861, Lt. Colonel, August 21, 1861.
*Wounded at Malvern Hill and by a shell concussion at Antietam.
*Appointed brigadier general to rank from June 23, 1862, but confirmation postponed, October 13, 1862; never confirmed.
*Placed in command of brigade but left the field at Chancellorsville due to “ulcerated” leg; immediately relieved of command.
*Captured July 4, 1863 at Smithburg, Tennessee. *Confederacy made no effort to obtain release.
*Released July 24, 1865. *Warner includes him on list of generals despite lack of confirmation; Eicher does not.
Martin, John Donelson Colonel
Acting Brigadier General
appointed April 29, 1862
*Mexican–American War (Private in the 3rd Tennessee Infantry).
*154th (Senior) Tennessee Infantry: Captain, May 1861; Major, May 1861.
*Raised and commanded the 25th Mississippi Infantry / 2nd Confederate Infantry Regiment on August 10, 1861.
*Commanded a brigade at Iuka, Shiloh and Corinth.
*Recommended for a Brigadier’s promotion (and appointed Acting Brig. Gen.) after Shiloh.
*Mortally wounded and died at Corinth on October 3, 1862.
Moore, Samuel Preston Colonel
Surgeon General
*Physician, assistant surgeon, U.S. Army, March 14, 1835. *Major U.S. Army Medical Corps, March 30, 1849.
*Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, February 25, 1861. *Surgeon General of the Confederate Army.
*Frequently listed erroneously as a brigadier.
*Repeated proposed legislation to give post of surgeon general automatic brigadier general rank failed.
*Unsubstantiated statement of brigadier general, South Carolina militia, appointment in 1865.
Munford, Thomas Taylor Colonel *VMI, 1852. *2nd Virginia Cavalry, Lt. Colonel, May 8, 1861, Colonel, April 25, 1862.
*Wounded at Turkey Bridge, Virginia, June 30, 1862. *13th Virginia Mounted Rifles, Colonel.
*Assigned as brigadier general by Fitzhugh Lee, November 9, 1864, not commissioned.
*Commanded cavalry brigade and at end of war, a division, in Army of Northern Virginia.
*Recommended for promotion by General Robert E. Lee March 23, 1865 to rank from November, 1864.
*Commission never received. *Died February 27, 1918, Uniontown Alabama, aged 86.
Northrop, Lucius B. Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: November 26, 1864
nomination not sent
for Senate confirmation
*USMA, 1831. *Severely wounded in Seminole Wars, 1839, and put on sick furlough. *Studied and practiced medicine.
*Dropped from army for running a private practice in Charleston but restored by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis.
*Resigned as Captain, U.S. Army, January 8, 1861. *Colonel and commissary general of the Confederacy, March 27, 1861–February 16, 1865.
*Appointed brigadier general to rank from November 26, 1864 but nomination not forwarded to Confederate Senate.
*Nonetheless shown on full general list by Wright, Warner; not listed as general by Eicher. *Relieved February 15, 1865.
*Arrested June 30, 1865 on suspicion of deliberately starving Union prisoners. *Charges dropped, October 31, 1865.
O’Neal, Edward Asbury Colonel
Brigadier General:
commission cancelled
*Alabama legislator. *9th Alabama Infantry, Private, May 1861, Major June 6, 1861, Lt. Colonel, October 21, 1861.
*26th Alabama Infantry, Colonel, April 2, 1862. *Wounded at Seven Pines, at Boonsboro,
at Antietam and at Chancellorsville. *Commanded a brigade at Chancellorsville.
*Robert E. Lee returned O’Neal’s brigadier general commission of June 6, 1863 and it was canceled.
William Pegram, “Willie” Colonel
Acting brigadier general
*Virginia Militia, Private, 1857, Sergeant, 1860, Sergeant-Major, 1861. *21st Virginia Infantry, Private, April 1861.
*Virginia Artillery 1st Lieutenant, May 1861, Captain, March 1862, Major, March 2, 1863.
*Pegram’s Artillery Battalion, Army of Northern Virginia, September 1863– April 1865.
*Lt. Colonel, February 27, 1864, Colonel February 13, 1865, acting Brigadier General, March 1865.
*Mortally wounded April 1, 1865, Five Forks. *Died April 2, 1865, Ford’s Station, Virginia.
Porterfield, George Colonel
Acting Brigadier General
*VMI, 1844. *Mexican–American War. *25th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, July 1, 1861.
*In command in Department of Northwestern Virginia, May 4, 1861–June 8, 1861. *Acting brigadier general.
*In command at Philippi, June 3, 1861. *Staff of Brigadier General William W. Loring; Chief of Ordnance on August 9, 1861.
*Commanded a brigade under Edward “Allegheny” Johnson, April 21, 1862–May 1, 1862.
*Not re-elected Colonel, 25th Virginia Regiment on May 1, 1862. *No action on appeal or promotion to brigadier general, soon resigned.
*Found by Union troops in June or July 1862 and arrested. *Soon afterward, Nathaniel P. Banks ordered
Porterfield to be paroled. *Never formally exchanged, took no further part in the war.
*One of last three surviving members of Aztec Club (Mexican–American War officers).
*Died February 27, 1919, Martinsburg, West Virginia, aged 96.
Rains, James Edwards Colonel
Brigadier General
rank, nom: November 4, 1862
not confirmed, died
*11th Tennessee Infantry: Private, April 1861, Captain, May 2, 1861, Colonel, May 10, 1861. *Initial brigade command, March 1862.
*Occupied Cumberland Gap during winter of 1861–1862. *Flanked out of that position in June 1862.
*Killed leading his men against a Union battery at Stones River, December 31, 1862, aged 29.
*Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Robertson, Felix Huston Colonel
Brigadier General (temporary)
rank: July 26, 1864
nom: rejected:
February 22, 1865
*Resigned from USMA in January 1861. *Son of Jerome Bonaparte Robertson.
*In charge of artillery of Wheeler’s cavalry corps in Atlanta campaign.
*Appointed brigadier general on July 26, 1864 but for unknown reasons his nomination was rejected by Confederate Senate, February 22, 1865.
*Severely wounded at Buckhead Creek, near Augusta, Georgia, November 26, 1864.
*Only native Texan to have been appointed a Confederate general. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
*Last surviving general officer of the Confederacy if appointment counted despite Senate rejection. *Died April 20, 1928, Waco, Texas, aged 89.
Semmes, Raphael
“Beeswax”, “Bim”
Rear Admiral,
Confederate States Navy
Brigadier General
appointed April 5, 1865
(unconfirmed)
*Midshipman, U.S. Navy, April 1, 1826; promoted through commander, U.S. Navy, September 14, 1855, resigned February 15, 1861.
*Commander, C.S. Navy, March 16, 1861. *Commanded CSS Sumter, commerce raider, CSS Alabama. Wounded off Cherbourg France.
*Commanded James River Squadron, February 18, 1865–April 9, 1865.
*Assigned as a brigadier general by President Davis, April 5, 1865, to command the Danville, Virginia defenses. *Not confirmed.
*Arrested for treason, December 15, 1865. *Released April 7, 1866.
Taylor, Thomas H. Colonel
Brigadier General
unconfirmed
*Mexican–American War. *1st Kentucky Infantry, a 12-month regiment, Lt. Colonel, July 3, 1861.
*Commanded brigade at Cumberland Gap and with E. Kirby Smith in Kentucky.
*Provost marshal for Pemberton at Vicksburg. *Captured, paroled and exchanged. *Provost marshal for S. D. Lee.
*Post commander at Mobile, Alabama at end of war.
*Appointed brigadier general November 4, 1862 but President Davis failed to nominate him to Senate at that grade.
Thomas, Bryan Morel Colonel
Brigadier General
rank: August 4, 1864
not confirmed
*USMA, 1858. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army April 6, 1861. *18th Alabama Infantry, Major, July 1861.
*Colonel of reserve cavalry regiment in Clanton’s brigade in Alabama, 1864.
*Commander of a mixed brigade of infantry, cavalry and artillery in the Department of the Gulf, September 1864–April 9, 1865.
*Captured at Fort Blakely, Alabama, April 9, 1865. *Warner lists as a general; Eicher does not.
Walker, Francis Marion Colonel *Mexican–American War. *19th Tennessee Infantry, Captain, 1861, Lt. Colonel, June 11, 1861, Colonel, May 8, 1862.
*Brigade command in June and July 1864. *Killed at Atlanta, June 22, 1864, aged 36 or 37.
*Commission received one day later, June 23, 1864. *Eicher says not confirmed. *Neither Warner nor Eicher list as a general.
State militia generals

At the beginning of the Civil War, the Union Army incorporated most State militia units from the States adhering to the Union, mainly because they were offered for federal service by their States in response to President Abraham Lincoln’s call for volunteers to put down the rebellion of the Confederate States. If the generals of these units did not receive appointments by the President of the United States and confirmation by the United States Senate and come into federal service with their units, new Union Army generals were appointed and confirmed for the Union Army brigades or divisions in which the units were placed. States often retained or further recruited some militia units for local defense but these units, including any generals, saw little, if any, combat in the Civil War as State units. State militia units remaining under State control did not leave their States for service elsewhere and few battles or lesser actions were fought in the Northern States. The battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Gettysburg and Monocacy were among the more notable exceptions.

The Confederate States Army followed a similar pattern with respect to incorporating volunteer militias but certain States retained a significant number of militia units for local defense. Because most of the battles of the Civil War occurred in Southern States, some of these units, and their State-appointed generals, saw significant service and combat. They were usually brought under the command of Confederate State Army commanders and forces in their areas but on a few occasions were the only forces available to oppose Union forces. State units fought in Texas, in Missouri, especially early in the war, in Virginia, especially during Jackson’s Valley Campaign, in Mississippi, especially during the Vicksburg Campaign, in Georgia, especially during Sherman’s March to the Sea, and in South Carolina, especially in the Carolinas Campaign.

Authors have not always pointed out that the generals in certain Civil War battles, actions or campaigns were State militia generals, not duly appointed and confirmed Confederate States Army (almost always Provisional Army of the Confederacy) generals. They were fighting for the Confederate cause and may have commanded a large number of troops but they are still properly described only as State militia generals.

Many of the Southern States’ militia officers are identified by historian Bruce C. Allardice.[2] Allardice, and others take an expansive view of Confederate general officer appointments, identify many militia officers who were never mustered into national service for the Confederacy, nor did they serve as generals in any campaign or significant battle. The list below does not include those officers. It is limited to those known to have served in the field in command of militia units, on in another significant capacity such as guard duty in an active theater or in temporary command of Confederate Army brigades or divisions.

Below is a list of the more significant State militia generals from the Confederate States. These generals commanded and participated in battles and campaigns, at least in their home states, and thus provided some field service during the war. As such, they are likely to be referred to as Confederate generals in some books, articles or sources, even though they were State militia generals and not duly commissioned Confederate generals.

Alcorn, James Lusk Brigadier General, Mississippi Militia *Mississippi legislator. *Brigadier General of Mississippi State militia, January 23, 1861.
*Captured at Helena, Arkansas, exchanged. *Mississippi militia, Colonel, 1862.
Anderson, Charles David Brigadier General, Georgia Militia *Mayor of Fort Valley, Georgia. *6th Georgia Infantry, Captain, May 27, 1861, Major, May 17, 1862, Lt. Colonel, May 15, 1863.
*Resigned January 20, 1864. *Wounded and captured at Antietam, exchanged. *Wounded at Chancellorsville.
*Aide to Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown. *Brigadier General, 3rd Georgia Militia brigade. *Brigade fought in Atlanta campaign.
*Sent to oppose Sherman’s March to the Sea. *Wounded at Griswoldville, November 22, 1864.
Boggs, James Brigadier General, Virginia Militia *Born, April 8, 1796, County Down, Ireland. *Moved to Virginia, 1807. *Virginia legislator.
*Brigadier General, Provisional Army of Virginia, April 27, 1861–June 8, 1861.
*Commander, 18th Brigade, Virginia militia, Valley District, November 1861. *Served in Jackson’s Valley Campaign.
*Died January 28, 1862, Pendleton County, Virginia.
Carson, James Harvey Brigadier General, Virginia Militia *Born February 11, 1808, near Winchester, Virginia. *Colonel Virginia militia.
*Brigadier general, Virginia militia, 1859–retired December 1861.
*Commander, 16th Brigade, Virginia militia, Valley District, November 1861. *Served in Jackson’s Valley Campaign.
Carswell, Reuben Walker Brigadier General, Georgia Militia *Georgia legislator. *Brigadier General, Provisional Army of Virginia, April 27, 1861–June 8, 1861.
*20th Georgia Infantry, 2nd Lieutenant, June 14, 1861, 1st Lieutenant, March 7, 1862. *Resigned March 8, 1862.
*48th Virginia Infantry, Captain, March 1862, Lt. Colonel, March 22, 1862. *Resigned November 12, 1864.
*Georgia legislator. *1st Brigade, Georgia militia, Brigadier General, May 1864. *Served in Atlanta campaign.
Chapman, Augustus A. Brigadier General, Virginia Militia *Born March 9, 1803, Union, Virginia. *Virginia legislator. *U.S. Representative from Virginia, March 4, 1843–March 3, 1847.
*Brigadier General, Virginia militia, 19th Brigade, 1861. *Brigadier General, Provisional Army of Virginia, April 27, 1861–June 8, 1861.
*Served in the Kanawha Campaign. *Mustered out: 1862.
Chase, William Henry Major General, Florida Militia *Born June 4, 1798 in Buckland, Massachusetts. *U.S. Army Major, Corps of Engineers.
*Designed, construction many Gulf Coast forts, especially at Pensacola. *Resigned as Major, U.S. Army, October 31, 1856 after 41 years.
*As Florida militia colonel, demanded surrender of Fort Pickens at Pensacola in January 1861. *No further part in war.
Clark, Edward Colonel, CSA; Brigadier General, Texas Militia *Republic of Texas staff, Mexican–American War. *Texas legislator. *Lieutenant governor of Texas, 1857– 1859.
*Acting governor of Texas, March 18, 1861–November 7, 1861 after Sam Houston deposed as governor for refusing Confederate loyalty oath.
*Colonel, Texas militia, 1861. *14th Texas Infantry, Colonel, 1863. *Appointment as CSA brigadier general not confirmed.
*Wounded at Pleasant Hill, April 9, 1864. *Brigadier general of Texas state militia, 1865.
Clark, John Bullock Brigadier General,
Missouri State Guard
*Born April 17, 1802, Madison County, Kentucky. *Brigadier general Missouri militia. *Colonel, Missouri Volunteers, Black Hawk War.
*Major General, Missouri Militia, 1836–1838 and 1848–1861. *U.S. Representative from Missouri, December 7, 1857–expelled July 13, 1861.
*Father of Brigadier General John B. Clark, Jr. *Brigadier General of pro-Confederate Missouri State Guard, July 11, 1861–resigned December 6, 1861.
*Wounded at Wilson’s Creek. *Representative and senator from Missouri in Confederate Congress. *Died October 29, 1885, Fayette, Missouri.
Clark, Meriwether Lewis Sr. Brigadier General, Missouri State Guard
Colonel
*Son of explorer William Clark. *USMA, 1830. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 31, 1833. *Missouri legislator.
*Missouri militia major of Artillery, July 1, 1846–June 24, 1847.
*Brigadier general, Missouri State Guard, 9th Division, May 18, 1861–resigned April 1862.
*Confederate Artillery, Major, November 11, 1862, Colonel, April 16, 1862. *Aide to Braxton Bragg, July 17, 1862.
*Assistant Inspector General, ordnance, August 14, 1864–April 6, 1865. *Brigade command in Appomattox Campaign. *Captured at Sayler’s Creek.
de Saussure, Wilmot Gibbes Brigadier General, South Carolina Militia *South Carolina legislator. *Lt. Colonel, South Carolina Militia. *1st South Carolina Artillery, Colonel, 1861.
*Commander, 4th Brigade of Artillery, January 1861. *Served in the Second Battle of Charleston Harbor.
*Brigadier general, South Carolina militia, August 1861. Adjutant General, South Carolina militia, April 11, 1862.
Ford, John Salmon
“R.I.P.” “Rip”
Brigadier General, Texas Militia
Colonel, CSA
*Physician, Indian fighter, Texas legislator, judge. *1st Lieutenant, Republic of Texas army, 1836–1838.
*Texas volunteers, spy, Mexican–American War.. *Texas Rangers, Captain, 1849.
*Texas militia, Colonel, 1861. *2nd Texas Cavalry Battalion, Colonel, 1862. *Brigadier general, CSA, Texas militia, March 1, 1864.
*Commanded a force at the Battle of Palmito Ranch, Texas, the last battle of the Civil War, on May 13, 1865.
Garlington, Albert Creswell Brigadier General, South Carolina Militia *South Carolina legislator. *Brigadier general, South Carolina Militia, Brigade 10, 1861.
*Holcombe’s Legion, Major, December 19, 1861. *Resigned May 21, 1862.
*Major general and Adjutant General and Inspector General, South Carolina militia, 1862–1865.
*Served in the Carolinas campaign. *Disbanded militia troops, February 1865.
Harman, William Henry Brigadier General, Virginia Militia *Born February 17, 1828, Waynesboro, Virginia. *Mexican–American War. *Brigadier general, 13th Brigade, Virginia militia, April 10, 1861.
*Commanded part of a force that seized Harper’s Ferry, April 18, 1861. *Colonel, Provisional Army of Virginia, April 27, 1861–June 8, 1861.
*5th Virginia Infantry, Lt. Colonel, May 7, 1861. *Replaced Kenton Harper as Colonel of the 5th Virginia Infantry regiment, September 11, 1861.
*Aide to Edward Johnson, dropped April 1862. *Colonel, Virginia Reserves, 1864.
*Killed at Waynesboro, Virginia, March 2, 1865.
Harper, Kenton Major General, Virginia Militia *Born 1801, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. *Moved to Virginia, 1823. *Captain, Virginia militia.
*Mayor of Staunton, Virginia. *Editor Staunton Spectator, 1823–1849. *Virginia legislator. *Mexican–American War.
*Major general and commander, 5th Division, Virginia militia, April 10, 1861. *Commanded a force that seized Harper’s Ferry, April 18, 1861.
*Brigadier general, Provisional Army of Virginia, May 1, 1861. *5th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, May 7, 1861.
*Virginia legislator. *Colonel CSA Virginia Reserves, June 2, 1864.
Harris, Jeptha Vining Brigadier General, Mississippi Militia *Mississippi legislator. *Captain, Mississippi militia. *Brigadier general, CSA, Mississippi militia.
*Captured at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. *Exchanged July 16, 1863. *Mustered out August 26, 1863.
*Colonel, Mississippi militia, August 26, 1864. *Mustered out 1865.
Harrison, Sr., George Paul Brigadier General, Georgia Militia *Georgia legislator. *Brigadier general Georgia militia, training and organization, Georgia coastal defense, 1861–1862. *Colonel, Georgia militia, 1864–1865. *Captured December 1864.
McBride, James Haggin Brigadier General, Missouri State Guard
Colonel, CSA
*Missouri legislator. *Brigadier general, Missouri State Guard, 7th Division, May 18, 1861.
*Commanded 7th Division at the Siege of Lexington, Missouri. *Captured near Springfield, Missouri, February 16, 1862, exchanged
*Resigned February 23, 1862. *Colonel, CSA, 1864. *Died of pneumonia at Bluffton, Arkansas, March 1864.
McCay, Henry Kent Brigadier General, Georgia Militia *12th Georgia Infantry, 2nd Lieutenant, June 15, 1861, Captain, February 6, 1862. *Wounded at Allegheny Mountain, Virginia, December 13, 1861.
*Resigned March 14, 1863. *Captain and aide, Georgia militia, April 1864. *1st Georgia Militia Battalion, Lt. Colonel, May 1864.
*Georgia Militia, 4th Brigade, Brigadier General, June 1864. *Fought at Griswoldville.
Meem, Gilbert Simrall Brigadier General, Virginia Militia *Virginia legislator. *Brigadier general, Virginia militia, April 10, 1861–resigned February 1, 1862. *Commander, 7th Brigade.
*Jackson’s Valley Campaign, November 1861–January 1862.
Phillips, Pleasant J. Brigadier General, Georgia Militia *Major, Georgia militia. *31st Georgia Infantry, Colonel, November 19, 1861. *Resigned May 13, 1862.
*Georgia militia, Brigadier General, July 7, 1862. *Colonel, Georgia militia, 1863.
*Georgia militia, 2nd Brigade, Brigadier General, 1864. *Served in the Atlanta campaign. *Resigned November 1864.
Smith, Francis Henney Brevet Brigadier General, Virginia Militia
Colonel
*USMA, 1833. *Resigned as 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Army, May 1, 1836. *Superintendent, VMI, 1839–1889.
*Brevet Brigadier General, Virginia militia, April 24, 1861. *9th Virginia Infantry, Colonel, July 7, 1861.
*VMI Corps of Cadets battalion, Colonel, April 30, 1862–May 18, 1862; May 11, 1864–June 27, 1864; October 1864; March 1865–April 1865.
Thompson, Meriwether
Jefferson “Jeff”
“Swamp Fox”
Brigadier General, Missouri State Guard *Mayor of St. Joseph Missouri, 1859–1860. *Missouri militia, Lt. Colonel, 1861, Colonel April 1861.
*Missouri State Guard, 1st Division, Brigadier General, July 25, 1861. *Captured at Pocahontas, Arkansas, August 22, 1863.
*Exchanged August 3, 1864.
*Sterling Price placed him in command of Brigade 1, Division 3, Cavalry Corps,
Trans–Mississippi Army, (Shelby’s Iron Brigade) September 8, 1864–December 3, 1864.
*Commanded Division 3, District of Arkansas, Cavalry Corps, Trans–Mississippi Army, December 3, 1864–May 11, 1865.
*Surrendered at Chalk Bluff, Arkansas, May 11, 1865.
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